Acetaminophen has been widely used for > 50 years in the treatment of pain and fever and provides for the safe and effective relief of these symptoms. In a small minority of patients, however, acetaminophen is responsible for life-threatening liver injury and accounts for up to 50% of all adult cases of acute liver failure in the US. Although approximately two-thirds of adult overdoses are associated with suicide attempts, many are inadvertent, often due to the use of multiple acetaminophen formulations over many days. Additionally, some individuals appear to experience acetaminophen toxicity at 'therapeutic' doses of < 4 g/day, for reasons unknown. In pediatric populations, the overwhelming majority of acetaminophen overdoses are due to unintentional overdoses, except for the predominance of suicidal ingestions in the teenage population. This article seeks to review the mechanism and metabolism of acetaminophen and the features of toxicity in adults, pediatric and special populations. Additionally, expert opinion is presented herein to aid in reducing the frequency and severity of liver injury from acetaminophen.
"Paracetamol (PCM) is primarily metabolized by sulfation and glucuronidation, but with an increasing dose rate; these pathways become saturated and a greater proportion of the drug is available for oxidation by the microsomal cytochrome P-450 system . N-Acetyl-P-benzoquinone Imine (NAPQI) is the product of this pathway which is thought to be responsible for the subsequent hepatic damage . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is critically involved in a variety of diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly toxic molecules that are generated during the body's metabolic reactions and can react with and damage some cellular molecules such as lipids, proteins, or DNA. Liver is an important target of the oxidative stress because of its exposure to various prooxidant toxic compounds as well as of its metabolic function and ability to transform some xenobiotics to reactive toxic metabolites (as ROS). To investigate the processes of liver injuries and especially liver oxidative damages there are many experimental models, some of which we discuss further.
"Acetaminophen is a well-known nonsteroidal antipyretic and analgesic agent, which is safe in therapeutic doses. However, overdoses of APAP can produce fatal hepatic necrosis and apoptosis in experimental animals and humans (Amar & Schiff, 2007). The ability of humans to metabolize and clear xenobiotics such as drugs is a natural process carried out by enzymes called drug metabolizing enzymes . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Ginger is a remedy known to possess a number of pharmacological properties. This study investigated efficacy of ginger pretreatment in alleviating acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into six groups; negative control, acetaminophen (APAP) (600 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection); vitamin E (75 mg/kg), ginger (100 mg/kg), vitamin E + APAP, and ginger + APAP. Administration of APAP elicited significant liver injury that was manifested by remarkable increase in plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), arginase activities, and total bilirubin concentration. Meanwhile, APAP significantly decreased plasma total proteins and albumin levels. APAP administration resulted in substantial increase in each of plasma triacylglycerols (TAGs), malondialdhyde (MDA) levels, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). However, ginger or vitamin E treatment prior to APAP showed significant hepatoprotective effect by lowering the hepatic marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP, and arginase) and total bilirubin in plasma. In addition, they remarkably ameliorated the APAP-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA). Pretreatment by ginger or vitamin E significantly restored TAGs, and total protein levels. Histopathological examination of APAP treated rats showed alterations in normal hepatic histoarchitecture, with necrosis and vacuolization of cells. These alterations were substantially decreased by ginger or vitamin E. Our results demonstrated that ginger can prevent hepatic injuries, alleviating oxidative stress in a manner comparable to that of vitamin E. Combination therapy of ginger and APAP is recommended especially in cases with hepatic disorders or when high doses of APAP are required.
Journal of Dietary Supplements 08/2013; 10(3). DOI:10.3109/19390211.2013.822450
"APAP is a well-known antipyretic and analgesic agent, which is safe in therapeutic doses but can produce fatal hepatic necrosis in experimental animals and humans [20, 21] and is employed as an experimental hepatotoxic agent. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fruit of
Sieb. et Zucc. is commonly prescribed in Asian countries as a tonic formula. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extracts of the fruit of
(ECO) was investigated in a mouse model of acetaminophen- (APAP-) induced liver injury. Pretreatment of mice with ECO (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg for 7 days) significantly prevented the APAP (200 mg/kg) induced hepatic damage as indicated by the serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT, and LDH). Parallel to these changes, ECO treatment also prevented APAP-induced oxidative stress in the mice liver by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (MDA) and restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and HO-1) and glutathione. Liver injury and collagen accumulation were assessed using histological studies by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Our results indicate that ECO can prevent hepatic injuries associated with APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by preventing or alleviating oxidative stress.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2012; 2012(4):804924. DOI:10.1155/2012/804924 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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