Enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was performed for oligomannosylpeptoids, which were immobilized on microtiter plates through a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The other immobilization methods, a hydrophobic adsorption and a covalent attachment, were found inapplicable to the oligomannosylpeptoids. Penta- and hexamannosylpeptoids with a shorter or longer spacer were found to be significantly recognized by concanavalinA (ConA), while the smaller peptoids showed no bindings. A proportional relationship between the amount of bound ConA and the peptoid density on the microtiter plate was observed, indicating the absence of both cluster and overdense effects that would assist or inhibit the binding increasingly with the ligand density.
"In this context, the remaining T cells, i.e., the ones spared from apoptosis, could still be able to produce this cytokine if adequately stimulated. This was hypothesized from the additional fact that ConA is a strong stimulus that directly and strongly interacts with glycoproteins from T cell surface . On the other hand, the reduced IFN-γ levels induced by LPS and SAC could indicate that other cell functions or cytokine synthesis are compromised by dietary restriction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) is the most common type of malnutrition. PCM leads to immunodeficiency and consequent increased susceptibility to infectious agents. In addition, responses to prophylactic vaccines depend on nutritional status. This study aims to evaluate the ability of undernourished mice to mount an immune response to a genetic vaccine (pVAXhsp65) against tuberculosis, containing the gene coding for the heat shock protein 65 from mycobacteria.
Young adult female BALB/c mice were fed ad libitum or with 80% of the amount of food consumed by a normal diet group. We initially characterized a mice model of dietary restriction by determining body and spleen weights, hematological parameters and histopathological changes in lymphoid organs. The ability of splenic cells to produce IFN-gamma and IL-4 upon in vitro stimulation with LPS or S. aureus and the serum titer of specific IgG1 and IgG2a anti-hsp65 antibodies after intramuscular immunization with pVAXhsp65 was then tested.
Dietary restriction significantly decreased body and spleen weights and also the total lymphocyte count in blood. This restriction also determined a striking atrophy in lymphoid organs as spleen, thymus and lymphoid tissue associated with the small intestine. Specific antibodies were not detected in mice submitted to dietary restriction whereas the well nourished animals produced significant levels of both, IgG1 and IgG2a anti-hsp65.
20% restriction in food intake deeply compromised humoral immunity induced by a genetic vaccine, alerting, therefore, for the relevance of the nutritional condition in vaccination programs based on these kinds of constructs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To apply the latex agglutination lectin assay (LALA) to carbohydrate ligands, monosaccharide derivatives were incorporated onto latex beads by various methods, and the usefulness of the resulting beads was evaluated. The best outcome, which resulted in aggregation with lectin concentrations of 1 to 4 μg/mL, was obtained when latex beads coated with bovine serum albumin were treated with divinylsulfone, a linker agent, and then with 2-aminoethyl glycosides. Monosaccharides with an amino or anomeric hydroxyl group other than N-acetylglucosamine were applicable in this direct LALA. For example, mannose- and 5-thiomannose-coupled latex beads showed aggregation with minimum concanavalin (ConA) concentrations of 4 and 32 μg/mL, respectively. An inhibition assay was more versatile than the direct LALA, and the standardized inhibition activity (EC 50) was determined for several compounds. Representative EC 50 data for mannose, methyl mannoside, and p-nitrophenyl mannoside (1, 0.12, and 0.06 mM, respectively) are consistent with those reported with other methods. We obtained EC 50 values for some synthetic compounds with slightly different binding abilities to ConA, demonstrating a semiquantitative character of this method. The inhibition LALA can be performed without instrumentation or tedious derivatization and is thus suitable for the rapid evaluation of monovalent ligands prior to assemblage into multivalent ligands.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oligomers of N-substituted glycine, or peptoids, are versatile tools to probe biological processes and hold promise as therapeutic agents. An underlying theme in the majority of recent peptoid research is the connection between peptoid function and peptoid structure. For certain applications, well-folded peptoids are essential for activity, while unstructured peptoids appear to suffice, or even are superior, for other applications. Currently, these structure-function connections are largely made after the design, synthesis, and characterization process. However, as guidelines for peptoid folding are elucidated and the known biological activities are expanded, we anticipate these connections will provide a pathway toward the de novo design of functional peptoids. In this perspective, we review several of the peptoid structure-function relationships that have been delineated over the past five years.
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