Pentamer is the minimum structure for oligomannosylpeptoids to bind to concanavalin A.
ABSTRACT Enzyme-linked lectin assay (ELLA) was performed for oligomannosylpeptoids, which were immobilized on microtiter plates through a streptavidin-biotin interaction. The other immobilization methods, a hydrophobic adsorption and a covalent attachment, were found inapplicable to the oligomannosylpeptoids. Penta- and hexamannosylpeptoids with a shorter or longer spacer were found to be significantly recognized by concanavalinA (ConA), while the smaller peptoids showed no bindings. A proportional relationship between the amount of bound ConA and the peptoid density on the microtiter plate was observed, indicating the absence of both cluster and overdense effects that would assist or inhibit the binding increasingly with the ligand density.
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ABSTRACT: Peptoids (N-substituted polyglycines and extended peptoids with variant backbone amino-acid monomer units) are oligomeric synthetic polymers that are becoming a valuable molecular tool in the biosciences. Of particular interest are their applications to the exploration of peptoid secondary structures and drug design. Major advantages of peptoids as research and pharmaceutical tools include the ease and economy of synthesis, highly variable backbone and side-chain chemistry possibilities. At the same time, peptoids have been demonstrated as highly active in biological systems while resistant to proteolytic decay. This review with 227 references considers the solid-phase synthetic aspects of peptoid preparation and utilization up to 2010 from the instigation, by R. N. Zuckermann et al., of peptoid chemistry in 1992.Molecules 08/2010; 15(8):5282-335. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To apply the latex agglutination lectin assay (LALA) to carbohydrate ligands, monosaccharide derivatives were incorporated onto latex beads by various methods, and the usefulness of the resulting beads was evaluated. The best outcome, which resulted in aggregation with lectin concentrations of 1 to 4 μg/mL, was obtained when latex beads coated with bovine serum albumin were treated with divinylsulfone, a linker agent, and then with 2-aminoethyl glycosides. Monosaccharides with an amino or anomeric hydroxyl group other than N-acetylglucosamine were applicable in this direct LALA. For example, mannose- and 5-thiomannose-coupled latex beads showed aggregation with minimum concanavalin (ConA) concentrations of 4 and 32 μg/mL, respectively. An inhibition assay was more versatile than the direct LALA, and the standardized inhibition activity (EC 50) was determined for several compounds. Representative EC 50 data for mannose, methyl mannoside, and p-nitrophenyl mannoside (1, 0.12, and 0.06 mM, respectively) are consistent with those reported with other methods. We obtained EC 50 values for some synthetic compounds with slightly different binding abilities to ConA, demonstrating a semiquantitative character of this method. The inhibition LALA can be performed without instrumentation or tedious derivatization and is thus suitable for the rapid evaluation of monovalent ligands prior to assemblage into multivalent ligands.Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry 01/2009; 28(2):78-93. · 0.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sustained treatment of prostate cancer with androgen receptor (AR) antagonists can evoke drug resistance, leading to castrate-resistant disease. Elevated activity of the AR is often associated with this highly aggressive disease state. Therefore, new therapeutic regimens that target and modulate AR activity could prove beneficial. We previously introduced a versatile chemical platform to generate competitive and non-competitive multivalent peptoid oligomer conjugates that modulate AR activity. In particular, we identified a linear and a cyclic divalent ethisterone conjugate that exhibit potent anti-proliferative properties in LNCaP-abl cells, a model of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we characterize the mechanism of action of these compounds utilizing confocal microscopy, time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, chromatin immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry, and microarray analysis. The linear conjugate competitively blocks AR action by inhibiting DNA binding. In addition, the linear conjugate does not promote AR nuclear localization or co-activator binding. In contrast, the cyclic conjugate promotes AR nuclear localization and induces cell-cycle arrest, despite its inability to compete against endogenous ligand for binding to AR in vitro. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals that gene transcripts are differentially affected by treatment with the linear or cyclic conjugate. Although the divalent ethisterone conjugates share extensive chemical similarities, we illustrate that they can antagonize the AR via distinct mechanisms of action, establishing new therapeutic strategies for potential applications in AR pharmacology.ACS Chemical Biology 08/2012; 7(10):1693-701. · 5.44 Impact Factor