Fatty Liver A Novel Component of the Metabolic Syndrome
ABSTRACT Although the epidemic of obesity has been accompanied by an increase in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, not all obese develop the syndrome and even lean individuals can be insulin resistant. Both lean and obese insulin resistant individuals have an excess of fat in the liver which is not attributable to alcohol or other known causes of liver disease, a condition defined as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by gastroenterologists. The fatty liver is insulin resistant. Liver fat is highly significantly and linearly correlated with all components of the metabolic syndrome independent of obesity. Overproduction of glucose, VLDL, CRP, and coagulation factors by the fatty liver could contribute to the excess risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the metabolic syndrome and NAFLD. Both of the latter conditions also increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and advanced liver disease. The reason why some deposit fat in the liver whereas others do not is poorly understood. Individuals with a fatty liver are more likely to have excess intraabdominal fat and inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. Intervention studies have shown that liver fat can be decreased by weight loss, PPARgamma agonists, and insulin therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease was traditionally interpreted as a condition which may progress to liver-related complications. However, the increased mortality is primarily a result of cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that fatty liver can be considered as the hepatic consequence of the metabolic syndrome. The aim was to describe the different clinical presentations of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease on the basis of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 gene variant.European Journal of Internal Medicine 06/2014; 25(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.05.012 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20%) with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.Journal of nutrition and metabolism 01/2014; 2014:403041. DOI:10.1155/2014/403041
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ABSTRACT: Background. Steatosis is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome often associated with release of liver enzymes and inflammatory adipocytokines linked to cardiovascular risk. Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is one sensitive liver marker recently identified as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Mechanisms involved in enhanced hepatic lipogenesis causing steatosis are not yet identified and are usually linked to insulin resistance (IR). Acylation stimulating protein (ASP), a potent lipogenic factor, was recently shown to increase in patients with steatosis and was implicated in its pathogenesis. Aim. To investigate the association of plasma ASP levels with liver and metabolic risk markers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Methods. 28 patients and 30 healthy controls were recruited. Their anthropometrics, lipid profile, liver markers, insulin, and ASP levels were measured. Results. In the patients, ASP, liver, and metabolic risk markers were markedly higher than in the controls. ASP strongly predicted GGT levels (B = 0.75, P < 0.0001), followed by triglycerides (B = 0.403, P = 0.017), together determining 57.6% variation in GGT levels. Insulin and IR correlated with metabolic risk components but not with liver enzymes. Conclusion. The strong association of ASP with GGT in ACS patients suggests that ASP, independent of IR, may contribute to a vicious cycle of hepatic lipogenic stimulation and GGT release promoting atherogenesis.Disease markers 08/2013; 35(3):155-61. DOI:10.1155/2013/914748 · 2.17 Impact Factor