Flavonols and Pancreatic Cancer Risk The Multiethnic Cohort Study
ABSTRACT Only a few prospective studies have investigated flavonols as risk factors for cancer, none of which has included pancreatic cancer. The latter is usually fatal, rendering knowledge about prevention particularly important. The authors estimated intakes of three flavonols-quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin-for 183,518 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort Study and examined associations with incidence of pancreatic cancer. Baseline data were collected in Hawaii and California in 1993-1996. Diet was assessed by using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. During 8 years of follow-up, 529 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer occurred. Multivariate Cox regression models were calculated to estimate relative risks. Intake of total flavonols was associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk (relative risk for the highest vs. lowest quintile = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.03; p trend = 0.046). Of the three individual flavonols, kaempferol was associated with the largest risk reduction (relative risk = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.58, 1.05; p trend = 0.017). Total flavonols, quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin were all associated with a significant inverse trend among current smokers (relative risks for the highest vs. lowest quartile = 0.41, 0.55, 0.27, 0.55, respectively) but not never or former smokers. This study provides evidence for a preventive effect of flavonols on pancreatic cancer, particularly for current smokers.
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ABSTRACT: The cereal grain crops have strong flexibility against adverse environment and they have various functional compounds. The objective of the present study was to screen phenolic compounds in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], foxtail millet (Setaria italica), common millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with photodiode array (PDA) detector. Sorghum contained the highest amount of phenolic compounds among three different crops (sorghum, foxtail millet, common millet). Especially Moktaksusu showed the highest amount of phenolic compounds concentrations and biggest regional differences. The comparison of average phenolic compounds in sorghums by regions showed order to Milyang (), Yeongyang (), Gijang () and Bonghwa (). Among the sorghum cultivars, Moktaksusu () had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The average phenolic compounds of foxtail millets showed similar amount among Milyang (), Gijang () and Bonghwa () areas. The phenolic compounds of Yeongyang () slightly low and that showed similar concentrations among three different regions. The concentration of phenolic compounds in foxtail millets, Chungchajo () showed the highest concentrations. The average phenolic compounds of common millets showed the highest concentrations in Milyang (), Bonghwa (), Gijang (), Yeongyang () in decreasing order. The concentration of phenolic compounds of common millets was the highest in the Norangchalgijang (), Hwanggumgijang () was also relatively higher than others. The results of this study will provide basic information for breeding sorghums, foxtail millets and common millets with higher phenolic compound concentrations.12/2011; 56(4). DOI:10.7740/kjcs.2011.56.4.361
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ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that a unique immune cell, the mast cell, accumulates in the stroma surrounding certain tumors, especially mammary and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, as well as melanoma. Many molecules secreted by mast cells could benefit the tumor in at least four ways: (1) angiogenin, heparin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which induce neovascularization; (2) proteases that disrupt the surrounding matrix and facilitate metastases; (3) growth factors such as, epidermal growth factor (EGF), nerve growth factor (NGF), platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and stem cell factor (SCF); (4) histamine, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), which are immunosuppressant, along with activation of certain dendritic cells that induce immunologic anergy. These actions could only occur through the unique ability of mast cells to release certain mediators selectively without degranulation. Blocking such release of pro-tumor mediators may constitute a novel therapeutic approach. KeywordsAngiogenesis-Cancer-Cytokines-Immunosuppression-Lung-Mammary-Mast cells-Melanoma-Pancreas-Skin12/2009: pages 353-370;
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ABSTRACT: At 50% maturity, regenerating Senna species were characterized for morphological traits, seed reproduction, and evaluated for regeneration. Quality plants regenerated from all accessions produced 1018 to more than 21,215 total seeds. Principal component analysis revealed which traits contributed the greatest to variability among coffee senna accessions. Senna species have potential to produce pharmaceutical products and can be grown as medicinal plants. The flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol found in Senna species have been clinically shown to have anti-pancreatic cancer properties.Plant Genetic Resources 11/2009; 7(03):257 - 259. DOI:10.1017/S1479262109344111 · 1.06 Impact Factor