A malignant tumor of striated muscle origin, Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a childhood tumor that has benefited from 30 years of multimodality therapeutic trials culminating in a greater than 70% overall current 5-year survival. Prognosis for RMS is dependent on anatomic primary tumor site, age, completeness of resection, presence and number of metastatic sites, histology and biology of the tumor cells. Multimodality treatment is based on risk stratification according to pretreatment stage, postoperative group, histology and site. Therefore, pretreatment staging is vital for assessment and is dependent on primary tumor site, size, regional lymph node status, and presence of metastases. Unique to RMS is the concept of postoperative clinical grouping that assesses the completeness of disease resection and takes into account lymph node evaluation both at the regional and metastatic basins. At all sites, if operative resection of all disease is accomplished, including microscopic disease, survival is improved. Therefore, the surgeon plays a vital role in determining risk stratification for treatment and local control of the primary tumor for RMS.
"Complete tumor resection is generally not advised if there is a significant risk for functional or cosmetic morbidity (for example, in head and neck RMS). Complete compartmental resection is not required for tumors arising within a muscle, as long as a minimum of 0.5 cm of margins is obtained.40 Tumor debulking in general should not be performed, with the possible exception of tumors localized in the retroperitoneum that are causing organ compromise, such as bowel obstruction. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant tumor of mesenchymal origin, is the third most common extracranial malignant solid tumor in children and adolescents. However, in adults, RMS represents <1% of all solid tumor malignancies. The embryonal and alveolar histologic variants are more commonly seen in pediatric patients, while the pleomorphic variant is rare in children and seen more often in adults. Advances in the research of the embryonal and alveolar variants have improved our understanding of certain genes and biologic pathways that are involved in RMS, but much less is known for the other variants. Multimodality therapy that includes surgery and chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy is the mainstay of treatment for RMS. Improvements in the risk stratification of the pediatric patients based on presurgical (primary tumor site, tumor size, regional lymph node involvement, presence of metastasis) and postsurgical parameters (completeness of resection or presence of residual disease or metastasis) has allowed for the treatment assignment of patients in different studies and therapeutic trials, leading to increases in 5-year survival from 25%-70% over the past 40 years. However, for adult patients, in great part due to rarity of the disease and the lack of consensus on optimal treatment, clinical outcome is still poor. Many factors have been implicated for the differing outcomes between pediatric RMS versus adult RMS, such as the lack of standardized treatment protocols for adult RMS patients and the increased prevalence of advanced presentations. Now that there are increased numbers of survivors, we can appreciate the sequelae from therapy in these patients, such as bone growth abnormalities, endocrinopathies, and infertility. Improvements in risk stratification have led to clinical trials using lower doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy with the intention of decreasing the incidence of side effects without compromising survival outcome.
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 06/2014; 5:115-25. DOI:10.2147/AHMT.S44582
"Metastasis occurs by hematogenous or lymphatic spread, most commonly to the lungs, bones and brain . The prognosis is influenced by the anatomic location at the time of presentation, patient's age, completeness of resection, extent of metastasic disease and tumor histology . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a patient who presented to the ENT service complaining of nasal obstruction, exophthalmos, edema and ipsilateral facial congestion. Imaging studies revealed an aggressive noncalcified solid mass centered in the left nasoethmoidal region and heterogeneous avid enhancement following contrast media injection. Subsequently, a biopsy confirmed the presence of solid alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. The patient was treated with chemoradiation therapy for 7 weeks. Due to the advanced stage of the disease, the patient was enrolled in a palliative care and pain control program.
Case Reports in Oncology 05/2014; 7(2):513-21. DOI:10.1159/000365547
"The assessment of lymph node involvement is usually based on physical or radiological examination, and confirmed by histological investigation . Different surgical techniques are applied, such as fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), core biopsy, node picking or sentinel node biopsy   . In adult studies, biopsy of suspected lymph nodes has a sensitivity of 79.6% and a specificity of 98.3%. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), evaluation of lymph node involvement (N1) is an important staging aspect, but difficult to assess. The aim of our study was to evaluate the assessment of lymph node infiltration and impact on outcome in N1 RMS patients.
We identified 277 non-metastatic RMS patients diagnosed and treated between 1990 and 2008. Patients with recorded N1 disease were evaluated for their diagnostic procedures and outcome.
In 13.7% N1 status was reported. In 19 of 34 N1 patients, lymph node biopsies were performed for histologically confirmation. Different treatment modalities were used to treat lymph node metastases. In total 23 of 31 patients received local treatment of the node (11/23 RT, 4/23 surgery, and 8/23 both). All patients received chemotherapy. Lymph node relapse occurred in 7 of 31 patients who were treated with one or two modalities. Only 1 (14%) of 8 patients treated with three modalities relapsed. In N0 patients 10 (4.2%) of 239 had a regional lymph node relapse, and 9 of 10 died.
Lymph node metastases are an essential part of staging. Node positivity contributes to relapse of disease. Nodal relapse is also associated with a high mortality rate. These data imply that nodal assessment needs to be optimal and standardized for improved staging.
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 03/2014; 49(3):416–419. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2013.08.002 · 1.39 Impact Factor
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