Medical expenditures for children with an autism spectrum disorder in a privately insured population.

Health Services Research and Evaluation Branch, Immunization Services Division, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.34). 04/2008; 38(3):546-52. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-007-0424-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study provides estimates of medical expenditures for a subset of children and adolescents who receive employer-based health insurance and have a medical diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data analyzed were from the 2003 MarketScan research databases. Individuals with an ASD had average medical expenditures that exceeded those without an ASD by $4,110-$6,200 per year. On average, medical expenditures for individuals with an ASD were 4.1-6.2 times greater than for those without an ASD. Differences in median expenditures ranged from $2,240 to $3,360 per year with median expenditures 8.4-9.5 times greater. These findings add to a growing body of evidence that children and adolescents with medical diagnoses of an ASD incur elevated medical utilization and costs.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Resources for supporting children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders continue to be scarce. Economics research can identify current patterns of expenditure, and help inform allocation of treatment and support resources between competing needs or uses. The aim was to identify the costs of supporting children and adolescents, the economic impacts of childhood psychiatric disorders in adulthood and any new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of interventions. An electronic search of databases (including PubMed, Medline and Psychinfo) identified peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2005 and 2012. Sixty-seven papers provided data on support and treatment costs now or in the future, or cost-effectiveness analyses of services. Half the articles came from the United States. Most articles focussed on autism spectrum disorder (ASD; 23 articles), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 15), conduct disorder (CD; n = 7), and anxiety or depression (n = 8). Only 14 studies used a cost perspective wider than health care; most included education costs (n = 11), but only five included costs to the justice system. The number of studies estimating costs to the family has increased, particularly for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In the United Kingdom, support costs for children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) appear to be lower than for those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although for the United States, the opposite may be true. Support costs for children and adolescents with ASD may be higher than both CD and ADHD. However, there were many differences between the samples and the methods employed making comparisons between studies difficult. Outcomes in adulthood include negative impacts on (mental) health, quality of life, public sector services, employment status and income. The evidence base is improving for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, although only one full cost-effectiveness analysis was identified since the previous review published in 2012. However, we still do not know enough about the economic implications of support and treatment for specific disorders.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 02/2014; · 5.42 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous research has suggested an association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and allergic disorders, but epidemiological evidence regarding asthma remains limited. We conducted a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study (1:4 case:control patients, age- and gender-matched), hypothesizing that asthma in infancy or toddlerhood increased the risk of ASD. The participants comprised 2134 asthmatic infants and children and 8536 controls aged 0–3 years in 2002. We identified cases of ASD that occurred near the end of the follow-up period (December 31, 2010), determining that asthmatic infants and children exhibited a higher accumulative incidence rate of ASD than did the controls (1.3% vs 0.7%, P = .007). After adjusting for age at enrollment, gender, level of urbanization, and comorbid allergic diseases (i.e., allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis), asthmatic infants and children exhibited an elevated risk of developing ASD (hazard ratio: 2.01, 95% confidence interval: 1.19–3.40). This prospective study indicated a temporal relation between asthma and subsequent ASD diagnosis, supporting the immune hypothesis of ASD pathogenesis. Further studies are required to clarify the probable interactional effects between these disorders and define a homogenous ASD subgroup.
    Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 01/2014; 8(4):381–386. · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It has been postulated that androgen overexposure in a susceptible person leads to excessive brain masculinization and the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. In this study, the responses to estradiol (E2), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on B-lymphocytes from ASD subjects and controls are compared. B cells were obtained from 11 ASD subjects, their unaffected fraternal twins, and nontwin siblings. Controls were obtained from a different cell bank. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and sodium 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction levels were measured after incubation with different concentrations of E2, DHT, and DDE. XTT/LDH ratio, representative of mitochondria number per cell, was calculated. E2, DHT, and DDE all cause "U"-shaped growth curves, as measured by LDH levels. ASD B cells show less growth depression compared to siblings and controls (P < 0.01). They also have reduced XTT/LDH ratios (P < 0.01) when compared to external controls, whereas siblings had values of XTT/LDH between ASD and external controls. B-lymphocytes from people with ASD exhibit a differential response to E2, DHT, and hormone disruptors in regard to cell growth and mitochondrial upregulation when compared to non-ASD siblings and external controls. Specifically, ASD B-lymphocytes show significantly less growth depression and less mitochondrial upregulation when exposed to these effectors. A mitochondrial deficit in ASD individuals is implied.
    Journal of Toxicology 01/2013; 2013:159810.