Article

Efficacy of valacyclovir vs acyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease: a pilot study.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.
American Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 11/2007; 144(4):547-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajo.2007.06.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To compare the efficacy of one-year treatment with valacyclovir vs acyclovir in preventing recurrence of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) eye disease.
Prospective, randomized, clinical trial pilot study.
Fifty-two immunocompetent patients with a history of recurrent ocular HSV disease were treated at the Ocular Immunology Service, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy. Twenty-six patients were randomized to the valacyclovir group (one 500 mg tablet daily), and 26 patients were randomized to the acyclovir group (one 400 mg tablet twice daily). The recurrence rate of ocular HSV disease during 12 months of treatment and drug-related side effects were monitored.
Recurrence of any type of ocular HSV disease during the 12-month treatment period was 23.1% in the valacyclovir group, compared with 23.1% in the acyclovir group. No difference between the two groups was observed regarding the nature, frequency, or severity of adverse events. The most frequent adverse events were nausea and headache.
One-year suppression therapy with oral valacyclovir (500 mg tablet daily) was shown to be as effective and as well tolerated as acyclovir (400 mg tablet twice daily) in reducing the rate of recurrent ocular HSV disease.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
254 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanol extracts of Odina wodier bark (OWB), a folk medicine, against representative bacteria, fungi and herpes simplex virus (HSV) associated with skin infections. The OWB extract(s) was found to inhibit the isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli at an MIC of 256-5000 μg ml(-1) and Candida albicans at and above 4000 μg ml(-1) by agar and broth dilution assays. The growth curve of S. aureus revealed the highest activity within 2-6h of methanol extract (ME) exposure. Interestingly the MTT and plaque reduction assay showed that the extracts can inhibit HSV-1 and HSV-2 at EC50 of 22.4 and 28.8 μg ml(-1) , with Selectivity index of 11.7-15. While the time kinetic and binding assays demonstrated that the ME at 50 μg ml(-1) prevents viral attachment into Vero cells. Phytochemical and HPLC analysis of ME revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, saponins, and tannins including the pseudotannin chlorogenic acid. The traditional use of OWB for the management of skin infections has scientific basis. This study demonstrated the antimicrobial potential of OWB on selected isolates of bacteria, fungi and HSV, associated with skin infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Applied Microbiology 08/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this review article, a number of milestones in the antiviral research field on nucleosides and nucleotides are reviewed in which the author played a significant part, especially in the initial stages of their development. Highlighted are the amino acyl esters of acyclovir, particularly valacyclovir (VACV), brivudin (BVDU) and the valine ester of Cf1743 (FV-100), the 2′,3′-dideoxynucleosides (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs), the acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (S)-HPMPA, (S)-HPMPC (cidofovir) and alkoxyalkyl esters thereof (HDP-, ODE-CDV), adefovir and adefovir dipivoxil, tenofovir and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), combinations containing TDF and emtricitabine, i.e., Truvada®, Atripla®, Complera®/Eviplera® and the Quad pill, and the phosphonoamidate derivatives GS-7340, GS-9131, GS-9191 and GS-9219.
    Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B. 12/2012; 2(6):535–548.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed persons. The development of resistant strains of HSV to the available drugs for infection management, as is evident in the first drug of choice acyclovir, has further compounded this situation. There is therefore an urgent need to identify and develop new alternative agents for management of HSV infections, more so, for those due to resistant strains. We report here on methanolic extract preparation from the leaves of Hyssopus officinalis, a medicinal plant locally growing in Iran that has exhibited remarkable anti-HSV activity in vitro and in vivo for both wild type and resistant strains of HSV. The extract significantly inhibited formation of plaques in Vero E6 cells infected with 100 PFU of wild type strains of HSV (7401H HSV-1 and Ito-1262 HSV-2) or resistant strains of HSV (TK − 7401H HSV-1 and AP r 7401H HSV-1) by 100% at 25 µg/ml in vitro with minimal cell cytotoxicity (CC 50 = 960 µg/ml). When the extract was examined for in vivo efficacy in a murine model using Balb/C mice cutaneously infected with wild type or resistant strains of HSV, the extract at an oral dose of 125 mg/kg significantly delayed the onset of HSV infections by over 50%. It also increased the mean survival time of treated infected mice by between 55 and 65% relative to the infected untreated mice (p < 0.05 versus control by Student's t-test). The mortality rate for mice treated with extract was also significantly reduced by 90% as compared with the infected untreated mice that exhibited 100% mortality. No acute toxicity was observed in mice at the oral therapeutic dose of 125 mg/kg. These results suggest that this herbal extract has potent anti-viral agents against herpes simplex viruses that can be exploited for development of an alternative remedy for HSV infections.
    Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 01/2010; 3:1118-1125.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
166 Downloads
Available from
May 15, 2014