Prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is a major product of COX-2 catalyzed metabolism of arachidonic acid in the endothelium. Recent studies have demonstrated that PGI(2) protects against atherothrombosis. The prostacyclin receptor knockout mice exhibit increased atherosclerosis, enhanced thrombosis, and enhanced proliferative response to carotid vascular injury with increased intima to media ratios [1-3]. Moreover, the recent withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx) due to increased cardiovascular events further supports the critical role of prostacyclin in inhibiting atherothrombosis in humans. Such studies have paralleled intense chemical biology studies to develop more stable prostacyclin analogues. Indeed a number of these analogues are currently being successfully used for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. In this review we will summarize the current literature on some principles of prostacyclin analogue development, our current understanding of the receptor, and recent developments which implicate prostacyclin in atherothrombotic protection. More than 68 million Americans suffer from cardiovascular disease, which causes more deaths, disability and economic loss than any other group of diseases. Further clinical investigations of orally stable prostacyclin analogues for treatment of cardiovascular diseases other than pulmonary hypertension may now be warranted.
"S1P also antagonizes endothelial dysfunction by preventing monocyte/endothelial interactions through activation S1PR1 in the type 1 NOD mouse model and has vascular protective properties, whereas S1PR1 activation promotes eNOS activation and nitric oxide production . Our data also showed that HDL with higher content of S1P upregulated COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release by human vascular endothelial cells, two important athero-protective factors . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may have pro-inflammatory effects on the endothelial cells,which causes atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). HDL is a major carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in plasma while S1P exhibits multiple biological activities. However, potential role of HDL and S1P in T2DM remains unexplored. We hypothesized that diabetic HDL with higher contents of S1P exerts beneficial effects on the vascular system.
Subjects with T2DM with or without proved large arteries atherosclerosis and normal controls (n=15 for each group) were recruited in the present study. HDL was isolated from the subjects by ultracentrifugation. The levels of HDL-associated S1P were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The protective function of diabetic HDL and S1P was evaluated by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and prostacyclin I-2 (PGI-2) release by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively.
The S1P levels in isolated HDL were significantly increased in T2DM subjects compared with controls (235.6 ± 13.4 vs 195.0 ± 6.4 ng/mg, P< 0.05). The diabetic HDL exerted greater protective effects on inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release by HUVECs than those of control HDL (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, respectively). Pertussis toxin, a common inhibitor of G-couple protein receptors, and VPC 23019, an antagonist of S1P receptor 1 and 3 significantly attenuated HDL-induced COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release.
Diabetic HDL carries higher level of S1P compared with normal HDL, which has the potential to contribute to protective effects on endothelial cells by inducing COX-2 expression and PGI-2 release. These findings provide a new insight of S1P function in T2DM patients, possibly leading to a new therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tesis Doctoral inédita leída en la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Biología Molecular. Fecha de lectura: 18-02-2008 Peer reviewed
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pretreatment using celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 inhibitor, or indomethacin, a nonselective COX inhibitor, reduced lypopolyssaccharide (LPS)-induced leukocyte migration to the rat peritoneal cavity. The effect of celecoxib (12 mg/kg) or indomethacin (2 mg/kg) on neutrophil chemotaxis induced by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) in an in vitro chemotactic assay (Boyden chamber) was investigated. Celecoxib and indomethacin inhibited chemotaxis induced by FMLP (Control=26.6+/-1.45, Celecoxib=12.8+/-3.04, Indomethacin=6.26+/-2.19 cells/field). When observed under intravital microscopy, a mouse cremaster preparation was used to assess the microvasculature to further investigate which step of cell recruitment was affected by these drugs. Celecoxib and indomethacin inhibited leukocyte migration induced by 0.05 microg/kg LPS injected into the cremaster muscle. However, the effect of celecoxib was associated with reduced cell rolling and adhesion, whereas indomethacin was only effective at inhibiting cell adhesion. Furthermore, SC560 pretreatment (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) of normal or LPS-challenged tissues did not alter leukocyte migration or cell adhesion, but it did enhance leukocyte rolling activity in both cases. Taken together, these results indicate that: 1) COX-1 activity is mainly related to leukocyte traffic under physiological conditions, and 2) COX-2 activity is mainly related to cell traffic under inflammatory conditions in vascular beds, suggesting a possible effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on the expression of adhesion molecules.
European Journal of Pharmacology 10/2008; 598(1-3):118-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2008.08.037 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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