Heterogeneity of PLAG1 gene rearrangements in pleomorphic adenoma
ABSTRACT Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), a benign mixed salivary gland tumor, has been associated with abnormal karyotypes in up to 70% of cases, with nonrandom involvement of 8q12, the locus of the pleomorphic adenoma (PLAG1) gene. In this study, cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to investigate PLAG1 involvement in PA from seven patients. There were two males and five females ranging in age from 25 to 65 years. Samples of parotid gland tissue from the tumor sites, set up as solid tumor cultures, showed a normal karyotype in two cases [46,XY;46,XX] and cytogenetic abnormalities in five cases (71%). The abnormalities comprised one variant translocation [t(1;4;8)(p32;q35;q12)], two classic translocations [t(5;8)(p13;q12)], one novel deletion [del(12)(p11.2p12.1)], and a novel insertion [ins(9;8)(p22;q12q21.1)]. FISH was performed in all cases by using two probes from the RP11 library, flanking PLAG1; a sequence 1.48 megabases (Mb) upstream and another 2.27 Mb downstream, covering a total area of 3.8 Mb. The PLAG1 gene was intact and normally situated in four cases - the 46,XY, 46,XX, del(12p), and one t(5;8). PLAG1 was disrupted in three cases - one t(5;8), ins(9;8), and t(1;4;8). In addition, genomic instability was seen in two cases, one with PLAG1 amplification in the form of a homogeneously staining region, and the other in der(8) ring formation. The data provide further unique cases showing the complexity of PLAG1 gene rearrangements in PA.
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ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports regarding the relative frequency of benign and malignant epithelial salivary gland tumors in children. There are only a few reports of the cytogenetic abnormalities in the pleomorphic adenomas (PA) that arise in children, and even less information regarding the pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1) and high motility group A2 (HMGA2 ) histochemical staining in PAs, or their correlation with histologic types (stromal vs epithelial predominance). A retrospective 14 year review of epithelial salivary gland tumors encountered at a children's hospital identified 13 tumors: 12 PAs and 1 acinic cell carcinoma (ACC). No mucoepidermoid carcinomas were identified. Tumors arose in the parotid (7) and other sites (2 submandibular, 4 minor). Ten PAs in our cohort had cytogenetic studies. Four were normal, 5 involved 8q12, and 1 involved 12q13. Immunohistochemistry identified an additional 2 PAs with PLAG1 staining, and 5 additional PAs with HMGA2 staining. One tumor with ins(18;8)(q21.1;q12q22.2) had no PLAG1 staining, but stained with HMGA2. This ins(18;8) may not have involved the PLAG1 gene. There was no demonstrable correlation of 8q12/PLAG1 staining or 12q13/HMGA2 staining with histologic type. Thus we found abnormalities in either 8q12/PLAG1 staining or 12q13/HMGA2 staining in all PAs. The HMGA2 staining in 50% of PAs suggests that it may be more frequently involved in PAs than previously thought based on cytogenetic studies, at least in children.Pediatric and Developmental Pathology 09/2010; 13(5):348-53. DOI:10.2350/09-05-0654-OA.1 · 0.86 Impact Factor
- Value in Health 11/2005; 8(6). DOI:10.1016/S1098-3015(10)67566-3 · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome-wide microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling of salivary gland pleomorphic adenomas revealed a distinct expression signature consisting largely of upregulated miRNAs compared with matched normal tissue. Microarray data were confirmed by quantitative real time RT-PCR (q-RTPCR). Five miRNA genes upregulated in the tumours were found in close proximity to fragile sites and/or cancer associated genomic regions. Interestingly, q-RTPCR revealed an increase in the expression of components of the miRNA processing machinery (Dicer, Drosha, DGCR8 and p68) in tumours suggesting that the deregulation of miRNA expression may result from increased miRNA biogenesis. Target gene prediction analysis of the altered miRNAs indicated that genes in a number of signalling pathways important in tumourigenesis including WNT, MAPK and JAK-STAT were overrepresented. Significantly, the oncogene PLAG1 was overexpressed in our cohort and may be potentially regulated by these miRNAs. This is the first study to examine changes in the miRNA milieu in pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumour. This study has demonstrated an upregulation of both miRNAs genes and an upregulation of the miRNA processing machinery. These changes may be potential underlying mechanisms for the development of these benign tumours.International Journal of Cancer 06/2009; 124(12):2855-63. DOI:10.1002/ijc.24298 · 5.01 Impact Factor