Nutritional iron deficiency. Lancet

Wageningen University, Wageningen, Gelderland, Netherlands
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 09/2007; 370(9586):511-20. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61235-5
Source: PubMed


Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming monotonous plant-based diets. The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the developing world has substantial health and economic costs, including poor pregnancy outcome, impaired school performance, and decreased productivity. Recent studies have reported how the body regulates iron absorption and metabolism in response to changing iron status by upregulation or downregulation of key intestinal and hepatic proteins. Targeted iron supplementation, iron fortification of foods, or both, can control iron deficiency in populations. Although technical challenges limit the amount of bioavailable iron compounds that can be used in food fortification, studies show that iron fortification can be an effective strategy against nutritional iron deficiency. Specific laboratory measures of iron status should be used to assess the need for fortification and to monitor these interventions. Selective plant breeding and genetic engineering are promising new approaches to improve dietary iron nutritional quality.

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    • "Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional disorder prevalent both in developed and developing countries particularly in pregnant women of developing countries (WHO, 2001). This is due to iron deficit intake of diet that could not meet the increased iron demand for the developing foetus (Zimmermann and Hurrell, 2007). According to World Health Organization (WHO, 2001) around 2 billion people who count approximately 30% of the world population is anaemic; pregnant women contributes approximately 41.8% of this anaemic polulation (De Benoist et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Anaemia during pregnancy is most commonly observed and highly prevalent in South-East Asia. Various effective programmes have been laid down for its management, mainly daily supplementation of iron folic acid (IFA) tablets. Following the same, standard obstetrical practice has included the IFA supplementation without requiring the determination of iron deficiency. In this study, a total of 120 primigravida (N=60; non-anaemic (Hb > 11 g/dl) and N=60 anaemic (Hb = 8-11 g/ dl)) were selected amongst those attending the Antenatal Clinic in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, India. They were supplemented with daily and weekly IFA tablets till six weeks postpartum. Corresponding changes in haemoglobin level on advance of pregnancy, side effects and compliance associated with daily and weekly IFA supplementation and its associations with iron status markers were studied. The inflammatory markers were also estimated. The statistical significance level (p <0.05) between the groups were assessed by applying unpaired t-test using SPSS (version 16.0). The obtained results publicized the salutary role of daily IFA supplementation in improving the haemoglobin level and iron status markers in anaemic pregnant women though the levels could not reached up to the non-anaemic haemoglobin levels. However, weekly IFA supplementation seems to be a better approach in non-anaemic pregnant women where almost comparable results were obtained in terms of haematological parameters, gestation length and birth weight.
    Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.09.007 · 1.26 Impact Factor
    • "Food fortification is generally recognised as a good strategy to counteract this nutritional deficiency; there is a large body of evidence indicating its efficacy, and it is regarded as the most costeffective long-term strategy (Baltussen, Knai, & Sharan, 2004; Zimmermann & Hurrell, 2007). For an iron fortification programme to be effective, it is essential that the form of iron selected be highly bioavailable. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fortification of food products with iron is a common strategy to prevent or overcome iron deficiency. However, any form of iron is a pro-oxidant and its addition will cause off-flavours and reduce a product's shelf life. A highly bioavailable heme iron ingredient was selected to fortify a chocolate cream used to fill sandwich-type cookies. Two different strategies were assessed for avoiding the heme iron catalytic effect on lipid oxidation: ascorbyl palmitate addition and co-spray-drying of heme iron with calcium caseinate. Oxidation development and sensory acceptability were monitored in the cookies over one-year of storage at room temperature in the dark. The addition of ascorbyl palmitate provided protection against oxidation and loss of tocopherols and tocotrienols during the preparation of cookies. In general, ascorbyl palmitate, either alone or in combination with the co-spray-dried heme iron, prevented primary oxidation and hexanal formation during storage. The combination of both strategies resulted in cookies that were acceptable from a sensory point of view after 1 year of storage.
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    • "Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in developed and developing countries [1]. In addition to this, it has been estimated that a large proportion of adolescents and adults do not reach the current dietary recommendations for calcium [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of phytic acid, tannic acid and pectin on fasting non-heme iron bioavailability in both the presence and absence of calcium.Research Methods Twenty-eight apparently healthy adult females participated in two iron absorption studies using radioactive iron isotopes (59Fe and 55Fe). One group received 5 mg of iron (as FeSO4) alone (control), together with 10 mg of phytic acid, 100 mg of tannic acid and 250 mg of pectin (study A), on different days. The second group received the same iron doses and compounds as the other group, plus 800 mg of calcium (CaCl2) (study B). The compounds were administered after an overnight fast, and no food or beverages were consumed for the following 3 hours. Iron status and circulating radioactivity were measured in venous blood samples.ResultsThe geometric means of iron bioavailability (range ± 1SD) for iron alone, iron with phytic acid, iron with tannic acid, and iron with citrus pectin were 25.0% (11.9-52.0); 18.9% (9.9-35.8); 16.8% (8.7-32.3); and 21.1% (10.2-43.9), respectively (repeated-measures ANOVA, p < 0.02 (Dunnett́s post hoc: control vs tannic acid p < 0.05). When 800 mg of calcium was added (study B), iron bioavailability was 16.7% (10.1-27.5); 13.2% (7.1-24.6); 14.8% (8.8-25.1); and 12.6% (5.5-28.8), respectively (repeated-measures ANOVA, NS).Conclusions Tannic acid decreases the fasting bioavailability of non-heme iron, however this effect did not exist in the presence of calcium. No effect was observed by phytic acid or citrus pectin on fasting non-heme iron bioavailability in both the presence and absence of calcium.
    Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 11/2014; 30. DOI:10.1016/j.jtemb.2014.11.005 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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