RhoB affects macrophage adhesion, integrin expression and migration

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, London, UK.
Experimental Cell Research (Impact Factor: 3.25). 11/2007; 313(16):3505-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.07.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Rho GTPases regulate multiple cellular responses, including cell motility and cell cycle progression. The Rho isoform RhoB represses transformation and affects endosomal trafficking, but its effects on cell adhesion and migration have not been investigated in detail. Here we show that RhoB-null macrophages are more rounded than wild-type macrophages on fibronectin and uncoated glass, and have reduced adhesion to ICAM-1 and glass but not fibronectin. This correlated with lower cell surface expression of beta2 and beta3 integrins but not beta1 integrin. RhoB-null cells migrated faster than Wt cells on fibronectin, consistent with their smaller spread area, but slower than Wt cells on glass, reflecting their reduced adhesion. C3 transferase, which inhibits RhoA, RhoB and RhoC, induced cell spreading but this effect was reduced in RhoB-null cells. However, RhoB is not required for assembly of podosomes, which are integrin-based adhesion sites, whereas C3 transferase induced a decrease in podosomes and defects in tail retraction. Since macrophages do not express RhoC, these effects of C3 transferase are due to inhibition of RhoA rather than RhoB. Our results suggest that RhoB affects cell shape and migration by regulating surface integrin levels.

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    • "In the literature, there are a few reports connecting RhoB expression with the expression level of integrins. It has been shown that diminishing RhoB expression in different cell models causes reduction in the amount of integrins available on the cell surface, namely β1 in prostate cancer cell line [37] and β2 and β3 in macrophages derived from RhoB−/− mice [38]. These data led us to examine whether silencing RhoB expression in HEp2 and CK2 cells may have increased Ad5-mediated transduction by influencing cell surface expression of Ad5 receptors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) is a non-enveloped DNA virus frequently used as a gene transfer vector. Efficient Ad5 cell entry depends on the availability of its primary receptor, coxsackie and adenovirus receptor, which is responsible for attachment, and integrins, secondary receptors responsible for adenovirus internalization via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, efficacious adenovirus-mediated transgene expression also depends on successful trafficking of Ad5 particles to the nucleus of the target cell. It has been shown that changes occurring in tumor cells during development of resistance to anticancer drugs can be beneficial for adenovirus mediated transgene expression. In this study, using an in vitro model consisting of a parental cell line, human laryngeal carcinoma HEp2 cells, and a cisplatin-resistant clone CK2, we investigated the cause of increased Ad5-mediated transgene expression in CK2 as compared to HEp2 cells. We show that the primary cause of increased Ad5-mediated transgene expression in CK2 cells is not modulation of receptors on the cell surface or change in Ad5wt attachment and/or internalization, but is rather the consequence of decreased RhoB expression. We propose that RhoB plays an important role in Ad5 post-internalization events and more particularly in Ad5 intracellular trafficking. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing changed Ad5 trafficking pattern between cells expressing different amount of RhoB, indicating the role of RhoB in Ad5 intracellular trafficking.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86698. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086698 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Loss of RhoB is often found in human cancers during tumor progression. Wheeler AP et al. reported that deletion of RhoB affects the cell adhesion, spreading and migration speed, and that these effects are dependent on the substrate availability, correlating with reduced surface integrin levels [31]. DeWard AD et al. show that the additional knockout of RhoB expression in Drf1-null mice accelerates the progression to myelodysplasia (MDS) [32]. "
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    ABSTRACT: RhoB, a member of small GTPases belonging to the Ras protein superfamily, might have a suppressive activity in cancer progression. Here, expression of RhoB gene was evaluated in human benign, borderline and malignant ovary tumors by immunostaining, with normal ovary tissue as control. Malignant tumors were assessed according to Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique (FIGO) guidelines and classified in stage I-IV. Revivification of RhoB gene was investigated by analyzing the effect of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor trichostatin (TSA) and methyltransferase inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-Aza) on ovarian cancer cells via RT-PCR and western blot. Apoptosis of ovary cancer cells was detected using flowcytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Subsequently, RhoB expression is detected in normal ovary epithelium, borderline tumors, and decreases significantly or lost in the majority of ovarian cancer specimen (P<0.05). RhoB expression decreases significantly from stage II (71.4%) to stage III (43.5%) to stage IV (18.2%, P<0.05). TSA can both significantly revive the RhoB gene and mediate apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells, but 5-Aza couldn't. Interference into Revivification of RhoB gene results in reduction of ovary carcinoma cell apoptosis. It is proposed that loss of RhoB expression occurs frequently in ovary carcinogenesis and progression and its expression could be regulated by histone deacetylation but not by promoter hypermethylation, which may serve as a prospective gene treatment target for the patients with ovarian malignancy not responding to standard therapies.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e78417. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078417 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "macrophages, RhoB has been postulated to affect adhesion by affecting surface levels of b-integrins (Wheeler and Ridley, 2007). We demonstrate that RhoB mediates ATF-induced upregulation of surface integrin levels, explaining how RhoB specifically affects uPAR responses, and hence uPAR-dependent signalling. "
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    ABSTRACT: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor, uPAR, play important roles in promoting cancer cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Rho GTPases are key coordinators of these processes; the Rho GTPase Rac1 has previously been implicated in uPA- and/or uPAR-induced migratory or morphological cell responses. We used RNAi to deplete 12 different Rho GTPases to screen for effects on uPA-stimulated migration, and found that depletion of RhoB significantly reduces uPA-induced migration and invasion of prostate carcinoma cells. RhoB depletion did not affect the expression or surface levels of uPAR but reduced the uPAR-induced increase in levels of several integrins and inhibited uPAR signalling to the actin regulator cofilin, the cell-adhesion signal-transduction adaptor molecule paxillin and the serine/threonine kinase Akt. uPAR rapidly activated RhoB and increased RhoB expression. RhoB depletion also reduced cell adhesion to and spreading on vitronectin, which is a uPAR ligand. This correlated with decreased association between integrins and uPAR and reduced integrin β1 activity. Our results indicate that RhoB is a key regulator of uPAR signalling in cell adhesion, migration and invasion.
    Journal of Cell Science 02/2012; 125(Pt 10):2369-80. DOI:10.1242/jcs.091579 · 5.43 Impact Factor
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