Neurocognitive effects of methamphetamine: a critical review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT This review provides a critical analysis of the central nervous system effects of acute and chronic methamphetamine (MA) use, which is linked to numerous adverse psychosocial, neuropsychiatric, and medical problems. A meta-analysis of the neuropsychological effects of MA abuse/dependence revealed broadly medium effect sizes, showing deficits in episodic memory, executive functions, information processing speed, motor skills, language, and visuoconstructional abilities. The neuropsychological deficits associated with MA abuse/dependence are interpreted with regard to their possible neural mechanisms, most notably MA-associated frontostriatal neurotoxicity. In addition, potential explanatory factors are considered, including demographics (e.g., gender), MA use characteristics (e.g., duration of abstinence), and the influence of common psychiatric (e.g., other substance-related disorders) and neuromedical (e.g., HIV infection) comorbidities. Finally, these findings are discussed with respect to their potential contribution to the clinical management of persons with MA abuse/dependence.
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ABSTRACT: Psychostimulants are a diverse group of substances with their main psychomotor effects resembling those of amphetamine, methamphetamine, cocaine, or cathinone. Due to their potential as drugs of abuse, recreational use of most of these substances is illegal since 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In recent years, new psychoactive substances have emerged mainly as synthetic cathinones with new molecules frequently complementing the list. Psychostimulant related movement disorders are a known entity often seen in emergency rooms around the world. These admissions are becoming more frequent as are fatalities associated with drug abuse. Still the legal constraints of the novel synthetic molecules are bypassed. At the same time, chronic and permanent movement disorders are much less frequently encountered. These disorders frequently manifest as a combination of movement disorders. The more common symptoms include agitation, tremor, hyperkinetic and stereotypical movements, cognitive impairment, and also hyperthermia and cardiovascular dysfunction. The pathophysiological mechanisms behind the clinical manifestations have been researched for decades. The common denominator is the monoaminergic signaling. Dopamine has received the most attention but further research has demonstrated involvement of other pathways. Common mechanisms linking psychostimulant use and several movement disorders exist.Frontiers in Neurology 04/2015; 6:75. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2015.00075
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DESCRIPTION: Quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics on the PFC identified one potential hit; the synaptic signaling protein phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein 1 (PEBP1). While methamphetamine intake was associated with reduced PEBP1 protein levels, treatment with ibudilast reversed this effect. Furthermore, decreased PEBP1 expression was correlated with subsequent activation of Raf-1, MEK, and ERK signaling components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade (MAPK). Future work will need to confirm the causal link between chronic methamphetamine intake, the alterations in PEBP1 by this intake, and the reversal of these alterations by ibudilast.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the effect of acute exercise in the potential context of non-pharmacological intervention for methamphetamine (MA)-related craving; we additionally determine its effect on the inhibitory control induced by standard and MA-related tasks according to behavioral and neuroelectric measurements among MA-dependent individuals. The present study employed a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. A total of 24 participants who met the DSM-IV criteria for MA dependence were recruited. The craving level, reaction time, and response accuracy, as well as the event-related potential (ERP) components N2 and P3, were measured following exercise and the control treatment in a counterbalanced order. The exercise session consisted of an acute stationary cycle exercise at a moderate intensity, whereas the control treatment consisted of an active reading session. The self-reported MA craving was significantly attenuated during, immediately following, and 50min after the exercise session compared with the pre-exercise ratings, whereas the craving scores at these time points following exercise were lower than those for the reading control session. Acute exercise also facilitated inhibitory performance in both the standard and MA-related Go/Nogo tasks. A larger N2 amplitude, but not a larger P3 amplitude, was observed during both tasks in the exercise session and the Nogo condition compared with the reading control session and the Go condition. This is the first empirical study to demonstrate these beneficial effects of acute aerobic exercise at a moderate intensity on MA-related craving and inhibitory control in MA-dependent individuals. These results suggest a potential role for acute aerobic exercise in treating this specific type of substance abuse. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Physiology & Behavior 04/2015; 147. DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.04.008 · 3.03 Impact Factor