Multiple myeloma accounts for an estimated 19,900 incident cancer cases per year in the United States. A population-based case-control study, consisting of 179 incident cases and 691 controls, was conducted to examine the impact of diet on multiple myeloma risk. Diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P-trends were calculated across quartiles of consumption. After controlling for potential confounders, we observed inverse associations for cooked tomatoes (P-trend = 0.002), cruciferous vegetables (P-trend = 0.01), fresh fish (P-trend < 0.001), alcohol (P-trend < 0.001), and vitamin A (P-trend < 0.001) with multiple myeloma risk. In contrast, consumption of cream soups (P-trend = 0.01), jello (P-trend = 0.01), ice cream (P-trend = 0.01), and pudding (P-trend < 0.001) were positively associated with multiple myeloma. Furthermore, there was a suggestion that carbohydrate intake may be positively associated, whereas vitamin D and calcium intake may be inversely associated, with multiple myeloma risk. Despite very limited data on dietary factors in relation to multiple myeloma, the findings from this study concur with previously published studies, suggesting an inverse association for consumption of fish, cruciferous vegetables and green vegetables, and a positive association for some dairy products.
"An unbalanced diet, particularly one high in fat, could contribute to homeostatic dysregulation of metabolic pathways, leading to diet-related health problems as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, inflammation, and also can be one of the factor important in cancer developing. Previous observations have shown that animal fat intake, not protein intake, as an influential factor for the development of lymphoma and other cancers    . On the other hand, Fernandez et al.  suggested that consumption of fresh fish significantly reduced the risk of MM, possibly because long chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids inhibit the use of arachidonic acid, an n-6 fatty acid, for the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: New membrane formation in the proliferating tumor cells consequently results in hypermetabolism of fatty acids (FA), as seen in many cancer patients, including multiple myeloma (MM). The FA composition of plasma reflects both endogenous synthesis as well as the dietary supply of these compounds. Additionally, obesity is a risk factor for the development of MM. The aim of this study was to compare the FA composition of plasma in 60 MM patients and 60 healthy controls. We noted significant differences in the FA profile of plasma from patients with MM when compared to the control group. Increased levels of saturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in MM patients suggest that there may be increased endogenous synthesis of these fatty acids, likely due to increased expression of desaturase and elongase. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed differences in the distribution of FA in plasma from MM patients compared to controls. Dietary fat and a deranged endogenous FA metabolism may contribute to cancer-associated inflammation through an abnormal arachidonic acid metabolism, caused by pro-inflammatory derivatives. Our study supports further research on the biochemistry of lipids in patients with MM.
Leukemia Research 12/2014; 39(4). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.12.010 · 2.35 Impact Factor
"From the reference lists of these articles, we identified five additional publications of interest. From a total of 28 articles, 10 were excluded because they did not satisfy the inclusion criteria – that is, for the following reasons: (i) multiple reports on the same study populations (Allen et al., 2009), (ii) studies not reporting quantifiable levels of alcohol consumption (Tavani et al., 1997; Hosgood et al., 2007; De Stefani et al., 2013), (iii) studies not reporting the RR or the odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% CI, or sufficient information to calculate them (Gallagher et al., 1983; Fritschi and Siemiatycki, 1996), and (iv) studies only reporting results for specific alcoholic beverages (i.e. beer, wine, and liquor/ spirit) (Linet et al., 1987), when total alcohol consumption was not evaluated. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of alcohol intake in the risk for multiple myeloma (MM) is unclear, although some recent findings suggest an inverse relationship. To summarize the information on the topic, we carried out a systematic review and a dose-risk meta-analysis of published data. Through the literature search until August 2013, we identified 18 studies, eight case-control and 10 cohort studies, carried out in a total of 5694 MM patients. We derived pooled meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and we carried out a dose-risk analysis using a class of nonlinear random-effects meta-regression models. The relative risk for alcohol drinkers versus non/occasional drinkers was 0.97 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.10] overall, 0.96 (95% CI, 0.74-1.24) among case-control studies, and 1.00 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.81-1.13) for light (i.e. ≤1 drink/day) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.74-1.07) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinkers. The dose-risk analysis revealed a model-based MM risk reduction of about 15% at two to four drinks/day (i.e. 25-50 g of ethanol). The present meta-analysis of published data found no strong association between alcohol drinking and MM risk, although a modest favorable effect emerged for moderate-to-heavy alcohol drinkers.
European journal of cancer prevention: the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP) 03/2014; 23(2):113-21. DOI:10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000001 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"Other studies have also reported positive associations between total meat or red meat intake and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (Chiu et al, 1996; Zhang et al, 1999), but most studies reported no association (Talamini et al, 2006; Cross et al, 2007; Hu et al, 2008). A few previous studies found increased risk of myeloma with intake of red meat (Tavani et al, 2000) or processed meat (Cross et al, 2007), while others reported no association (Hosgood, III et al, 2007; Brown et al, 2001). Total and processed meat intake was associated with increased risk of leukemia in line with a few casecontrol studies of childhood (Petridou et al, 2005; Sarasua and Savitz, 1994) or adulthood leukemia (Hu et al, 2008), but in contrast to prospective studies (Ross et al, 2002; Cross et al, 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary There is strong evidence that meat intake increases the risk of colorectal cancer. However, for other cancer sites there is currently less convincing evidence. To further explore the association between meat intake and cancer risk we conducted a case-control study of 26 cancer sites in Uruguay between 1988 and 2000, including 6892 cancer cases and 1832 hospital controls. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals of various cancers for intake of total meat, red meat, beef, lamb and processed meat. There was a statistically significant increase in the odds of cancers of the mouth and pharynx (OR=1.63), esophagus (OR=3.30), larynx (OR=1.85), stomach (OR=4.02), colorectum (OR=1.78), lung (OR=1.59), sarcomas (OR=2.27), prostate (OR=1.58), bladder (OR=1.68), kidney (OR=1.96), nervous system (OR=3.12), thyroid (OR=2.38), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR=1.79), myeloma (OR=3.28) and all cancer sites combined (OR=1.61) with high intake of total meat and similar findings were found with red meat, beef and lamb. Intake of processed meat was associated with increased odds of cancers of the pharynx (OR=1.90), esophagus (OR=1.51), larynx (OR=2.03), stomach (OR=4.39), colorectum (OR=1.76), breast (OR=1.23), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR=2.01), leukemia (OR=2.11) and with all cancer sites combined (OR=1.32). Our results confirm earlier findings of increased risk of gastrointestinal cancers with higher meat intake and suggest that meat consumption increases the risk of multiple other cancer sites.
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