Article

Comparison of a new hemostatic agent to current combat hemostatic agents in a Swine model of lethal extremity arterial hemorrhage.

Biomedical Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.96). 08/2007; 63(2):276-83; discussion 283-4. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e3180eea8a5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Gaining hemostatic control of lethal vascular injuries sustained in combat using topical agents remains a challenge. Recent animal testing using a lethal arterial injury model has demonstrated that QuikClot zeolite granules (QCG) and the HemCon chitosan bandage (HC) are not capable of providing hemostasis and improving survival over the Army gauze field bandage (AFB). We have developed a new hemostatic agent consisting of a granular combination of a smectite mineral and a polymer (WoundStat) capable of producing hemostasis in the face of high-pressure arterial bleeding. We compared the performance of WoundStat (WS) to QCG, HC, AFB, and the new QuikClot zeolite Advance Clotting Sponge (ACS) in a lethal vascular injury model.
Hemostatic agents were tested using a lethal femoral artery vascular injury model. Twenty-five (5 per group) male swine (42 kg +/- 3 kg) were anesthetized, instrumented, and splenectomized. A lethal femoral artery injury was produced by creating a 6-mm arteriotomy in the vessel. After 45 seconds of hemorrhage, animals were randomized to be treated with AFB (control group), HC, QCG, ACS, or WS. Pressure (200 mm Hg) was applied over the product in the wound for 3 minutes. A second application and 3 additional minutes of pressure was provided if hemostasis was not achieved. Fluid resuscitation was begun at the time of application with 500 mL of Hextend, followed by lactated Ringer's solution at 100 mL/min to achieve and maintain a postapplication mean arterial blood pressure of 65 mm Hg. Animals were observed for 180 minutes or until death. Primary endpoints were survival, survival time, post-treatment blood loss, and amount of resuscitation fluid.
All animals treated with WS survived to 180 minutes and required only a single application. No animal in the AFB, QCG, or ACS group survived. One animal in the HC group survived. Survival (p < 0.05) and survival times (p < 0.0001) for WS animals were significantly greater than for all other groups. No significant difference in survival or survival time existed between the AFB, QCG, ACS, or HC groups. Post-treatment blood loss (p = 0.0099) and postresuscitation fluid volume (p = 0.006) was significantly less for animals treated with WS than for all other groups. No significant difference in these parameters existed between the AFB, QCG, ACS, and HC groups.
WS was superior to the other hemostatic agents tested in this study of lethal arterial vascular injury. Additional study is warranted on this agent to determine its potential for use in combat and civilian trauma.

0 Followers
 · 
141 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To highlight the most recent findings and results of new hemostatic agents for acute bleeding of the gastrointestinal tract of common and less common cause published in the past 12 months.
    Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/MOG.0000000000000105 · 3.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2014; 20(21):6481-6494. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i21.6481 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wound healing is a complex series of biochemical and cellular events. Optimally, functional material design addresses the overlapping acute and inflammatory stages of wound healing based on molecular, cellular, and bio-compatibility issues. In this paper the issues addressed are uncontrolled hemostasis and inflammation which can interfere with the orderly flow of wound healing. In this regard, we review the serine proteases thrombin and elastase relative to dressing functionality that improves wound healing and examine the effects of charge in cotton/cellulosic dressing design on thrombin production and elastase sequestration (uptake by the wound dressing). Thrombin is central to the initiation and propagation of coagulation, and elastase is released from neutrophils that can function detrimentally in a stalled inflammatory phase characteristic of chronic wounds. Electrokinetic fiber surface properties of the biomaterials of this study were determined to correlate material charge and polarity with function relative to thrombin production and elastase sequestration. Human neutrophil elastase sequestration was assessed with an assay representative of chronic wound concentration with cotton gauze cross-linked with three types of polycarboxylic acids and one phosphorylation finish; thrombin production, which was assessed in a plasma-based assay via a fluorogenic peptide substrate, was determined for cotton, cotton-grafted chitosan, chitosan, rayon/polyester, and two kaolin-treated materials including a commercial hemorrhage control dressing (QuickClot Combat Gauze). A correlation in thrombin production to zeta potential was found. Two polycarboxylic acid cross linked and a phosphorylated cotton dressing gave high elastase sequestration.
    12/2011; 2(4):391-413. DOI:10.3390/jfb2040391