Portal vein thrombosis; risk factors, clinical presentation and treatment

Department of Medicine V (Hepatology and Gastroenterology), Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, Denmark.
BMC Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.11). 02/2007; 7:34. DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-7-34
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is increasingly frequently being diagnosed, but systematic descriptions of the natural history and clinical handling of the condition are sparse. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe risk factors, clinical presentation, complications and treatment of portal vein thrombosis in a single-centre.
Sixty-seven patients were identified in the electronic records from 1992 to 2005. All data were obtained from the patient records.
One or more risk factors (e.g. prothrombotic disorder or abdominal inflammation) were present in 87%. Symptoms were abdominalia, splenomegaly, fever, ascites, haematemesis, and weight loss. Abdominalia and fever occurred more frequently in patients with acute PVT. Frequent complications were splenomegaly, oesophageal- and gastric varices with or without bleeding, portal hypertensive gastropathy and ascites. Varices and bleeding were more frequent in patients with chronic PVT. Patients who received anticoagulant therapy more frequently achieved partial/complete recanalization. Patients with varices who were treated endoscopically in combination with beta-blockade had regression of the varices. The overall mortality was 13% in one year, and was dependent on underlying causes.
Most patients had a combination of local and systemic risk factors for PVT. We observed that partial/complete recanalization was more frequent in patients treated with anticoagulation therapy, and that regression of varices was more pronounced in patients who where treated with active endoscopy combined with pharmacological treatment.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of anticoagulation for the treatment of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in cirrhotic patients. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect databases were searched. The rates of bleeding complications and portal vein recanalization in patients who received anticoagulant therapy were pooled. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated to express the difference in the rate of portal vein recanalization between anticoagulation and non-anticoagulation groups. All meta-analyses were conducted by using a random-effects model. Sixteen of 960 initially identified papers were included. Two studies reported a low incidence of major anticoagulation-related complications (4% [2/55] and 3% [1/33]), but no lethal complications occurred. The rate of anticoagulation-related bleeding ranged from 0% to 18% with a pooled rate of 3.3% (95% CI=1.1%-6.7%). The heterogeneity was not significant in the meta-analysis. The total rate of portal vein recanalization ranged from 37% to 93% with a pooled rate of 66.6% (95% CI=54.7%-77.6%). The rate of complete portal vein recanalization ranged from 0% to 75% with a pooled rate of 41.5% (95% CI=29.2%-54.5%). However, the heterogeneity was significant in the 2 meta-analyses. The rate of complete portal vein recanalization was significantly higher in anticoagulation group than in non-anticoagulation group (OR=4.16, 95% CI=1.88-9.20, P=0.0004). The heterogeneity was not significant in the meta-analysis. Anticoagulation could achieve a relatively high rate of portal vein recanalization in cirrhotic patients with PVT. Given that only a small number of non-randomized comparative studies are reported, randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm the risk-to-benefit of anticoagulation in such patients, especially anticoagulation-related bleeding. Copyright © 2014 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Internal Medicine 01/2015; 26(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2014.12.002 · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Portal vein obstruction may be due to portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or its sequale, the portal cavernoma. PVT is a common complication in liver cirrhosis, however, it may also occur as a primary vascular disorder, in absence of any liver disease. To review the current knowledge on nomenclature, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and management of adult patients with obstruction in the portal vein, either as a primary vascular disease in adults, or as a complication of liver cirrhosis. A structured search in PubMed was performed using defined keywords (portal vein obstruction, extra-hepatic portal vein obstruction, PVT and portal cavernoma), including full text articles and abstracts in English language. Several causes, operating both at local and systemic level, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of PVT. Frequently, more than one risk factor could be identified; however, occasionally no single factor is discernible. Diagnosis of portal vein obstruction depends on clinical presentation, imaging and laboratory investigations. Prompt treatment greatly affects the patient's outcome. Portal vein obstruction occurring either due to thrombosis in the portal vein or due to the portal cavernoma, can contribute to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with or without cirrhosis. In recent years our understanding of etio-pathogenesis of portal vein obstruction has evolved tremendously, which has led to significant improvement in treatment outcomes. There are still areas where more studies are needed to better clarify the management issues of portal vein obstruction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 12/2014; DOI:10.1111/apt.13019 · 4.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a rare event in the general medical setting that commonly complicates cirrhosis with portal hypertension, and can also occur with liver tumors. The diagnosis is often incidental when a thrombus is found in the portal vein on imaging tests. However, PVT may also present with clinical symptoms and can progress to life-threatening complications of ischemic hepatitis, liver failure, and/or small intestinal infarction. This article reviews the pathophysiology of this disorder, with a major focus on PVT in patients with cirrhosis, and presents detailed guidelines on optimal diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Clinics in Liver Disease 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cld.2014.09.012 · 2.70 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

1 Download
Available from