Long-term use of Swedish moist snuff and the risk of myocardial infarction amongst men.
ABSTRACT The scientific evidence on cardiovascular risks associated with long-term use of snuff is limited and inconclusive. The use of this smokeless tobacco has increased in recent decades, and adverse health effects associated with snuff use could be of great public health concern.
We aimed to study whether long-term use of snuff affects the risk of myocardial infarction.
Between 1978 and 1993 all construction workers in Sweden were offered repeated health check-ups by the Swedish Construction Industry's Organization for Working Environment Safety and Health. A cohort was created with information on tobacco use and other risk factors, collected through questionnaires.
In total, 118,395 nonsmoking men without a history of myocardial infarction were followed through 2004. Information on myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality was obtained from national registers. Relative risk estimates were derived from Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for age, body mass index and region of residence.
Almost 30% of the men had used snuff. In total, 118 395 nonsmoking men without a history of myocardial infarction were followed through 2004. The multivariable-adjusted relative risks for ever snuff users were 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.02) for nonfatal cases and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.55) for fatal cases. Heavy users (>or=50 g day(-1)) had a relative risk of fatal myocardial infarction of 1.96 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.58). Snuff use increased the probability of mortality from cardiovascular disease amongst nonfatal myocardial infarction patients.
Our results indicate that snuff use is associated with an increased risk of fatal myocardial infarction.
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ABSTRACT: The deleterious effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are well established. Both active and passive smoking represent a major health hazard for both men and women. The great concerns related to the deleterious effects of CS on cardiovascular disease have been translated into various kinds of social interventions and targeted health policies since ever. The high health impact of cigarette smoking has driven a huge number of researches at the epidemiological, clinical and biological level. Nevertheless, even though many progresses have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the high disease burden associated to cigarette smoke, the exact components and the mechanisms by means of which it exerts its effects remain to be completely clarified as yet. The present paper reviews the main observations on the pathophysiology of smoke-related cardiovascular diseases, providing an up-to-date perspective about one of the main cardiovascular killers of our days.Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace / Fondazione clinica del lavoro, IRCCS [and] Istituto di clinica tisiologica e malattie apparato respiratorio, Università di Napoli, Secondo ateneo 07/2008; 70(2):59-67.
Article: Association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension in an adult male rural population of India.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Tobacco consumption is a major source of mortality and morbidity in India . Prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption in India is around 20%. Studies have shown increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and an increased incidence of adverse cardiovascular events among the ST consumers. This is a cross-sectional study done to look into the association of exclusive smokeless tobacco consumption with hypertension, in an adult male rural population of north India. All male residents of a village in north India above 15 years of age, who did not have any acute or chronic morbidity were included after taking an informed consent. Subjects were interviewed regarding their demographic profile, socioeconomic status and tobacco consuming habits. Current smokeless tobacco user was defined as one who has ever consumed tobacco orally in past 1 month. Blood pressure of the subjects was also recorded. Cut offs used for systolic and diastolic hypertension were 140 mm hg and 90 mm Hg respectively. 443 subjects were included in the study. Prevalence of exclusive ST users was 21% while 19.4% consumed both forms and 26.6% did not take any form of tobacco. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were significantly higher in exclusive ST users(systolic BP=139.2+17.4,diastolic BP = 86.8+11.5)as compared to the non users(systolic BP= 135.7+18.8 , diastolic BP= 82.6 +11.5; p value < 0.05). The prevalence of diastolic hypertension was significantly higher in exclusive ST users as compared to non users ( 40.9%, 22.9% ;p value = 0.01) . The OR for diastolic hypertension in male ST users was 2.3( 95% C.I. = 1.3-4.3). Prevalence of systolic hypertension was higher in exclusive ST users too though this was not statistically significant (43%,36.4%;p value = 0.39.). ST consumption is associated with increased prevalence of high BP in the adult male rural population.This is an indicator of increased predisposition to major adverse cardiac events later in their life time. Prevention of ST consumption could be an important intervention in preventing the ongoing upswing in prevalence of chronic heart disease.Tobacco Induced Diseases 11/2009; 5:15.
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ABSTRACT: The use of "snus" (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to addiction. The use of snus increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Nicotine substitution therapy as well as bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have been shown not to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential cardiovascular hazards of snus must be incorporated into health educational programs in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help stop smoking.Annales de cardiologie et d'angeiologie 08/2011; 61(2):105-10. · 0.21 Impact Factor