Effect of influenza vaccine status on winter mortality in Spanish community-dwelling elderly people during 2002-2005 influenza periods.
ABSTRACT This study assessed the relationship between the reception of conventional inactivated influenza vaccine and winter mortality in a prospective cohort that included 11,240 Spanish community-dwelling elderly individuals followed from January 2002 to April 2005. Annual influenza vaccine status was a time-varying condition and primary outcome was all-cause death during study period. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazard models adjusted by age, sex and co-morbidity were used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness. Influenza vaccination was associated with a significant reduction of 23% in winter mortality risk during overall influenza periods. The attributable mortality risk in non-vaccinated people was 24 deaths per 100,000 persons-week within influenza periods, the prevented fraction for the population was 14%, and one death was prevented for every 239 annual vaccinations (ranging from 144 in Winter 2005 to 1748 in Winter 2002).
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ABSTRACT: The paper presents a method for determination of the maximum throw of flyrock fragments and the estimation of safe distances. The method is based upon formulation and solution of differential equations of ballistic flight of the flyrock fragments. The equations are formulated according to Newton's law of motion. Two possible solutions are presented, an approximate numerical solution and the application of the Runge–Kutta algorithm of the fourth order. As an illustration of the presented method a post-accidental forensic analysis case study is given describing the procedure for determination of the input parameters (especially the launch velocity).International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 10/2011; 48(7):1086-1094. · 1.42 Impact Factor