Procalcitonin is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia and acute neuroinflammation.
ABSTRACT Procalcitonin (PCT) is an established marker for severe systemic bacterial infection and sepsis in blood. Here we measured PCT by immunoassay in CSF and matched serum/plasma samples of controls and patients with different primary dementia disorders and acute neuroinflammation. PCT in CSF was significantly increased in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia and acute neuroinflammation (encephalitis, meningitis) compared to non-demented controls. In contrast, PCT levels in matched plasma samples were normal in dementia groups, but elevated in meningitis/encephalitis. Our results indicate a central production of PCT and suggest PCT as a valuable marker candidate for the monitoring of dementia and acute neuroinflammation.
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ABSTRACT: Survivors from sepsis present long-term cognitive deficits and some of these alterations resemble the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. For this reason, we analyzed beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and synaptophysin levels in the brain of rats that survived from sepsis and their relation to cognitive dysfunction and to acute brain inflammation. Sepsis was induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, and 30 days after surgery, the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were isolated just after cognitive evaluation by the inhibitory avoidance test. The immunocontent of Aβ and synaptophysin were analyzed by Western blot analysis. Aβ increased and synaptophysin decreased in septic animals both in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex concurrent with the presence of cognitive deficits. Prefrontal levels of synaptophysin correlated to the performance in the inhibitory avoidance. Two different treatments known to decrease brain inflammation and oxidative stress when administered at the acute phase of sepsis decreased Aβ levels both in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, increased synaptophysin levels only in the prefrontal cortex, and improved cognitive deficit in sepsis-survivor animals. In conclusion, we demonstrated that brain from sepsis-survivor animals presented an increase in Aβ content and a decrease in synaptophysin levels and cognitive impairment. These alterations can be prevented by treatments aimed to decrease acute brain inflammation and oxidative stress.Molecular Neurobiology 08/2013; · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background To study the levels of procalcitonin (PCT) in patients with meningitis and control group and compare them with established markers of infection—such as C-reactive protein (CRP), high-sensitivity CRP, and WBC—in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and assess the possible discriminative role of PCT in the differential diagnosis of meningitis from other noninfectious diseases.Methods We studied CSF samples of patients from Intensive Care Unit, Internal Medicine, Neurology, Hematology, and Pediatric departments. The total number of patients included in the study was 58. The samples were divided into three groups: group 1 with bacterial meningitis (BM) central nervous system (n = 19); group 2 with viral meningitis (VM, n = 11); and group 3, control group, with noninfectious diseases (n = 28).ResultsValues of PCT levels >0.5 ng/ml were considered as abnormal. In group 1, mean PCT levels were 4.714 ± 1.59 ng/ml. In group 2, all patients had PCT <0.5 ng/ml (0.1327 ± 0.03 ng/ml). In group 3, the mean PCT levels were <0.1 ng/ml.ConclusionPCT values in CSF can be very helpful in distinguishing BM from VM and other noninfectious diseases.Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 05/2014; · 1.36 Impact Factor