Impact of markedly elevated serum lipoprotein(a) levels (> or = 100 mg/dL) on the risk of coronary heart disease.
ABSTRACT The serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration is under genetic control, and most humans have values lower than 30 mg/dL. Subjects with markedly elevated serum Lp(a) concentrations, that is, > or =100 mg/dL, are rarely encountered, and these subjects have not yet been fully characterized from the clinical point of view. In the present investigation, we studied a total of 223 subjects, comprising 123 males and 100 females, with serum Lp(a) values of more than 100 mg/dL. Many of these subjects had a variety of underlying diseases, including metabolic disorders, renal diseases, and hypertension. We focused our attention on the patients with metabolic disorders, namely, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), primary non-FH hypercholesterolemia (HC), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), and conducted a comparative study of the patients of these 3 disease groups with the corresponding disease controls with serum Lp(a) levels of less than 30 mg/dL, a presumed high normal value. The frequency of markedly elevated serum Lp(a) levels in the general population has not been reported previously. We determined the frequencies in a consecutive series of patients at our Diabetes and Lipid Outpatient Clinic; the results revealed that the frequencies were 6.4% (8/125), 2.6% (6/232), and 0.9% (3/352) in patients with FH, HC, and type 2 DM, respectively. In an attempt to further demonstrate the impact of markedly elevated serum Lp(a) concentrations on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), we compared the prevalence of CHD among the study subjects with that among the corresponding disease controls. The results revealed a significantly higher CHD prevalence in the study subjects of all the 3 groups as compared with that in the corresponding disease controls: the odds ratios of a markedly elevated serum Lp(a) level were 5.429 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.353-21.782), 8.243 (95% CI, 2.793-24.327), and 5.981 (95% CI, 2.530-14.139) for FH, HC, and type 2 DM, respectively. In the present study, we examined some characteristics of this rare population of subjects with markedly elevated serum Lp(a) levels and demonstrated a very high prevalence of CHD among these patients with FH, HC, and type 2 DM, strongly suggesting the significance of Lp(a) as a risk factor for CHD.
- JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/1994; 271(13):1025-6. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relation of serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) with the incidence of atherosclerotic disease was investigated among 7424 men and women aged 40-64 years free of atherosclerotic disease at baseline in 1977. During the 9-year follow-up, 134 male and 131 female cases with either myocardial infarction or stroke were identified. For each case a control subject was selected belonging to the same sex and 5-year age group. Serum samples collected in 1977 were stored at -20 degrees C and analyzed in 1991. The mean serum homocysteine concentration of male cases and controls was 9.99 mumol/l and 9.82 mumol/l at baseline and that of female cases and controls 9.58 mumol/l and 9.24 mumol/l, respectively. The median serum Lp(a) concentration of male cases and controls was 73 mg/l and 108 mg/l and that of female cases and controls 113 mg/l and 91 mg/l, respectively. The differences between cases and controls were not statistically significant. There was also no significant association between either homocysteine or Lp(a) and atherosclerotic disease, myocardial infarction or stroke in logistic regression analyses. The odds ratios varied from 1.00 to 1.26 for homocysteine and from 0.81 to 1.06 for Lp(a). The results of this prospective population-based study do not support the hypotheses that serum homocysteine or Lp(a) are risk factors for atherosclerotic disease. The lack of association between serum homocysteine and atherosclerotic disease may be due to the exceptionally low gene frequency predisposing to homocysteinemia in Finland.Atherosclerosis 04/1994; 106(1):9-19. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lp(a) lipoprotein binds proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids. We investigated whether levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) measured with use of monoclonal antibody E06 reflect the presence and extent of obstructive coronary artery disease, defined as a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter. Levels of oxidized LDL and Lp(a) lipoprotein were measured in a total of 504 patients immediately before coronary angiography. Levels of oxidized LDL are reported as the oxidized phospholipid content per particle of apolipoprotein B-100 (oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio). Measurements of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels were skewed toward lower values, and the values for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio correlated strongly with those for Lp(a) lipoprotein (r=0.83, P<0.001). In the entire cohort, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels showed a strong and graded association with the presence and extent of coronary artery disease (i.e., the number of vessels with a stenosis of more than 50 percent of the luminal diameter) (P<0.001). Among patients 60 years of age or younger, those in the highest quartiles for the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels had odds ratios for coronary artery disease of 3.12 (P<0.001) and 3.64 (P<0.001), respectively, as compared with patients in the lowest quartile. The combined effect of hypercholesterolemia and being in the highest quartiles of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio (odds ratio, 16.8; P<0.001) and Lp(a) lipoprotein levels (odds ratio, 14.2; P<0.001) significantly increased the probability of coronary artery disease among patients 60 years of age or younger. In the entire study group, the association of the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio with obstructive coronary artery disease was independent of all clinical and lipid measures except one, Lp(a) lipoprotein. However, among patients 60 years of age or younger, the oxidized phospholipid:apo B-100 ratio remained an independent predictor of coronary artery disease. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL are strongly associated with angiographically documented coronary artery disease, particularly in patients 60 years of age or younger. These data suggest that the atherogenicity of Lp(a) lipoprotein may be mediated in part by associated proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids.New England Journal of Medicine 07/2005; 353(1):46-57. · 51.66 Impact Factor