Initial Psychometric Properties of the Experiences Questionnaire: Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Decentering

Department of Psychology, 226 Kent Hall Annex, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.
Behavior Therapy (Impact Factor: 3.69). 10/2007; 38(3):234-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003
Source: PubMed


Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated the factor structure of the EQ in both undergraduate and clinical populations. A single, unifactorial decentering construct emerged using 2 undergraduate samples. The convergent and discriminant validity of this decentering factor was demonstrated in negative relationships with measures of depression symptoms, depressive rumination, experiential avoidance, and emotion regulation. Finally, the factor structure of the EQ was replicated in a clinical sample of individuals in remission from depression, and the decentering factor evidenced a negative relationship to concurrent levels of depression symptoms. Findings from this series of studies offer initial support for the EQ as a measure of decentering.

Download full-text


Available from: Michael T Moore,
    • "This storytelling and sharing approach is not conducted in an educational or persuasive way but rather through a mutual discussion and is mostly initiated by the athletes' thinking. In line with the decentering evaluation method using the Measure of Awareness and Coping in Autobiographical Memory (MACAM; Moore, Hayhurst, & Teasdale, 1996 as cited in Fresco et al., 2007 "

    Mindfulness and Performance, Edited by Amy L. Baltzell, 01/2016: chapter 11: pages 235-267; Cambridge University Press., ISBN: 9781107074699
    • "The 11-item decentering subscale has shown good internal consistency (a = .83) for the factor of decentering (Fresco et al., 2007). Participants responded on a 5-point Likert scale from 1 (never) to 5 (all the time) to items assessing the ability to adopt a decentred perspective upon one's cognitions, such as ''I can separate myself from my thoughts and feelings. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Existing models of mindfulness describe the self-regulation of attention as primary, leading to enhanced decentering and ability to access and override automatic cognitive processes. This study compared 23 experienced and 21 non-meditators on tests of mindfulness, attention, decentering, and ability to override automatic cognitive processes to test the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie mindfulness practice. Experienced meditators had significantly higher mindfulness and decentering than non-meditators. No significant difference between groups was found on measures of attention or ability to override automatic processes. These findings support the prediction that mindfulness leads to enhanced decentering, but do not support the cognitive mechanisms proposed to underlie such enhancement. Since mindfulness practice primarily involves internally directed attention, it may be the case that cognitive tests requiring externally directed attention and timed responses do not accurately assess mindfulness-induced cognitive changes. Implications for the models of mindfulness and future research are discussed.
    Consciousness and Cognition 10/2015; 38:50-59. DOI:10.1016/j.concog.2015.10.005 · 2.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "A number of self-report questionnaires are available to assess levels of mindfulness. Table 1 provides a list of some of the most commonly cited instruments with their demonstrated psychometric properties (Baer et al. 2004, 2006; Brown and Ryan 2003; Cardaciotto et al. 2008; Chadwick et al. 2008; Feldman et al. 2007; Fresco et al. 2007; Haigh et al. 2011; Lau et al. 2006; Walach et al. 2006). Measurement of mindfulness is a relatively new research area, with the first self-report mindfulness measure, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), published in 2001 (Buchheld et al. 2001; Walach et al. 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) is the most widely used mindfulness scale to date, with validity studies indicating acceptable reliability and convergent validity. However, recent evidence indicates that the ability of the MAAS items to precisely discriminate between mindfulness levels is compromised. To improve item functioning and precision of the MAAS, responses of 250 participants to the scale were subjected to Rasch analysis. To improve disordered thresholds, items were rescored and each item was tested for Differential Item Functioning. Where misfit to Rasch model expectations was identified, items were removed and the effect on individual item-fit estimates were tested. Uniform rescoring of all items was the best solution to order thresholds of all items and to improve overall goodness of fit to the Rasch model. Satisfactory model fit was achieved after removing the misfitting Items 6 and 15 and combining the locally dependent Items 7 and 8. Functioning of MAAS items can be improved substantially by several minor modifications to scoring algorithms without the need to modify the current response format. Precision of the instrument can be improved further by using the ordinal-to-interval conversion tables presented here.
    Mindfulness 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12671-015-0454-z · 3.69 Impact Factor
Show more