Initial Psychometric Properties of the Experiences Questionnaire: Validation of a Self-Report Measure of Decentering

Department of Psychology, 226 Kent Hall Annex, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA.
Behavior Therapy (Impact Factor: 2.43). 10/2007; 38(3):234-46. DOI: 10.1016/j.beth.2006.08.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Decentering is defined as the ability to observe one's thoughts and feelings as temporary, objective events in the mind, as opposed to reflections of the self that are necessarily true. The Experiences Questionnaire (EQ) was designed to measure both decentering and rumination but has not been empirically validated. The current study investigated the factor structure of the EQ in both undergraduate and clinical populations. A single, unifactorial decentering construct emerged using 2 undergraduate samples. The convergent and discriminant validity of this decentering factor was demonstrated in negative relationships with measures of depression symptoms, depressive rumination, experiential avoidance, and emotion regulation. Finally, the factor structure of the EQ was replicated in a clinical sample of individuals in remission from depression, and the decentering factor evidenced a negative relationship to concurrent levels of depression symptoms. Findings from this series of studies offer initial support for the EQ as a measure of decentering.

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    • "Based on previous research (Carmody et al. 2009; Fresco et al. 2007; Pearson et al. 2014) and face validity of the measures, we selected measures to operationalize each of the psychological mechanisms proposed by Shapiro et al. (decentering, values clarification, self-regulation, exposure, and cognitive/ behavioral flexibility), and tested these as potential mediators of the effects of facets of mindfulness on psychological symptoms that are particularly prevalent among college students (depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety symptoms, and alcoholrelated problems). "
    Mindfulness 10/2015; 6(5). DOI:10.1007/s12671-014-0349-4
    • "Reappraisal has been positively associated with decentering, which is defined as " taking a nonjudgmental and accepting stance regarding thoughts and feelings " (r = .25; Fresco et al., 2007, p. 234). This may suggest that individuals who use reappraisal are less likely to believe that their emotions either define them or will not change. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Critiques of self-report indices of emotion regulation suggest that its measurement is in need of more critical investigation. The current study examined the factor structure of emotion regulation as informed by Gross' (1998a) Process Model: Situation Selection, Attentional Deployment, Cognitive Change, and Response Modulation. Method A sample of 553 participants was recruited using Amazon's Mechanical Turk (Mage = 37.12, SD = 13.66; n = 352 female). Confirmatory factor analysis with maximum likelihood estimation was performed in Mplus. Results A four-factor model of emotion regulation demonstrated poor fit. An alternative five-factor model fit the data well: CFI = .94, TLI = .93, RMSEA = .07. Conclusion Emotion regulation may be better conceptualized as a combination of specific strategy use and a broader construct, called “emotional distancing” (a trait-like disposition towards emotions). Further research is required to determine if the observed five-factor model can be replicated in more diverse samples.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/jclp.22197 · 2.12 Impact Factor
    • "Decentering was assessed using the 11-item Experiences Questionnaire (EQ; Fresco et al. 2007) measured on a five-point response scale (0 = never, 4=all the time). "
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined the associations between trait mindfulness and depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms (i.e., worry), and alcohol-related problems via decentering and purpose in life. Using structural equation modeling in a large sample of college students (N = 1,277), we found support for decentering and purpose in life as partial mediators of the associations between trait mindfulness and these outcomes. Although our findings should be viewed as preliminary given the cross-sectional study design and study population, our results are consistent with the notion that decentering and purpose in life may be mechanisms explaining the health beneficial effects of mindfulness. Future research studies with extensive assessments of potential mechanisms using experimental and longitudinal designs are needed to bolster confidence that decentering and purpose in life are important mechanisms explaining the health-promoting effects of mindfulness.
    Mindfulness 06/2015; 6(3). DOI:10.1007/s12671-014-0300-8
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