Stress-induced remodeling of lymphoid innervation

Norman Cousins Center for PNI, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, UCLA School of Medicine, USA.
Brain Behavior and Immunity (Impact Factor: 5.89). 02/2008; 22(1):15-21. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2007.06.011
Source: PubMed


Lymphoid organs have long been known to harbor neural fibers from the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, but recent studies suggest a surprising degree of plasticity in the density of innervation. This review summarizes data showing that behavioral stress can increase the density of catecholaminergic neural fibers within lymphoid organs of adult primates. Stress-induced neural densification is associated with increased expression of neurotrophic factors, and functional consequences include alterations in lymph node cytokine expression and increased replication of a lymphotropic virus. The finding that behavioral stress can tonically alter lymph node neural structure suggests that behavioral factors could exert long-term regulatory influences on the initiation, maintenance, and resolution of immune responses.

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    • " , signaling and targets of sympathetic nerves in lymphoid organs ( Felten et al . , 1985 ; Felten and Felten , 1988 ; Felten , 1991 ; Straub , 2004 ) , the effect of age ( Bellinger et al . , 1992 ; Madden et al . , 1995 , 1997 , 1998 ; Friedman and Irwin , 1997 ) and stress ( Irwin , 1994 ; Marshall and Agarwal , 2000 ; Nagatomi et al . , 2000 ; Sloan et al . , 2008 ) as well as the relevance of dysregulated sympathetic nerovus system in immune - mediated disease ( Bellinger et al . , 1992 , 2008 ; Madden et al . , 1995 ; Friedman and Irwin , 1997 ; Marshall and Agarwal , 2000 ; Frohman et al . , 2001 ; Straub et al . , 2006 ; Wrona , 2006 ; del Rey and Besedovsky , 2008 ; Benarroch , 2009 ) ."
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