Immunosuppression of the elderly kidney transplant recipient.
ABSTRACT The growing number of elderly patients with end-stage kidney disease awaiting transplantation has resulted in a corresponding rise in the number of elderly transplant recipients. In this paper, we review existing literature on age-related changes, transplant outcomes, and complications in the elderly in an attempt to propose a tailored approach to immunosuppression management in this group of patients. Despite the fact that the benefit of transplantation in the elderly is well established, clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of immunosuppression regimens are lacking. Until such data exists, immunosuppression of the elderly transplant recipient should be based on the traditional principles which guide all transplant protocols and consideration of factors that are unique to the elderly. There are limited data regarding age-related changes in immune function and metabolism of immunosuppression agents in this population. Results of registry data analyses suggest that the risk of acute rejection decreases with age; however, the impact of acute rejection on long-term allograft function is greater in this population. There is also an increased risk of infection and adverse events posttransplantation among these patients. Elderly patients are more likely to receive organs from extended criteria donors and the impact of donor factors on transplant outcomes must therefore be considered. Taking these factors into consideration, we propose an approach to immunosuppression in the elderly based on individual risk stratification of treatment failure and the potential for adverse events.
Article: Patient and graft outcomes from deceased kidney donors age 70 years and older: an analysis of the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The organ shortage has resulted in more use of older deceased donor kidneys. Data are limited on the impact of donor aged 70 years and older on transplant outcomes. We examined patient and graft outcomes of renal transplant from expanded criteria donors (ECDs) aged 70 years and older, using the Organ Procurement Transplant Network/United Network of Organ Sharing database. We identified 601 deceased donor transplants from donors older than 70 years from 2000 to 2005. The follow-up time was until May 2007. Allograft and patient survival were compared between recipients of transplants from older ECDs (age > or =70) and younger ECDs (age 50-69). The relative risk of graft loss and patient death were determined using multivariate models. The adjusted relative risks of overall graft loss (hazards ratio [HR] 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.58), death-censored graft loss (HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.09-1.61), and patient death (HR 1.37; 95% CI 1.15-1.64) were greater among recipients of transplants from older ECD kidneys. The relative risk of patient death was lower when older ECD kidneys were transplanted into recipients older than 60 compared with recipients aged 41 to 60. In contrast, the relative risk of death-censored graft loss was not increased when older ECD kidneys were transplanted into recipients older than 60. Transplants from older ECD kidneys are associated with a higher risk of graft loss and patient death. The risk was highest when older ECD kidneys were transplanted into recipients younger than 60 years.Transplantation 06/2008; 85(11):1573-9. · 4.00 Impact Factor