Parental Protection of Extremely Low Birth Weight Children at Age 8 Years
To examine parent protection and its correlates among 8-year-old ELBW children compared with normal birth weight (NBW) controls.
The population included 217 eight-year-old ELBW children born 1992-1995 (92% of the surviving birth cohort; mean birth weight, 811 g; mean gestational age, 26.4 weeks) and 176 NBW controls. The primary outcome measure, the Parent Protection Scale (PPS), included a total score and four domains including Supervision, Separation, Dependence, and Control. Multivariate analyses were performed to examine the predictors of parental protection and overprotection.
After adjusting for socioeconomic status (SES), race, sex, and age of the child, parents of ELBW children reported significantly higher mean total Parent Protection Scale scores (31.1 vs 29.7, p = .03) than parents of NBW children and higher scores on the subscale of Parent Control (8.0 vs 7.5, p = .04). These differences were not significant when the 36 children with neurosensory impairments were excluded. Parents of ELBW children also reported higher rates of overprotection than controls (10% vs 2%, p = .001), findings that remained significant even after excluding children with neurosensory impairments (8% vs 2%, p = .011). Multivariate analyses revealed lower SES to be associated with higher total Parent Protection Scale scores in both the ELBW (p < .001) and NBW (p < .05) groups. Additional correlates included neurosensory impairment (p < .05) and functional limitations (p < .001) in the ELBW group and black race (p < .05) and maternal depression (p < .01) in the NBW group. Lower child IQ was significantly associated with higher PPS scores only in the neurosensory impaired subgroup of ELBW children.
Longer term follow-up will be necessary to examine the effects of the increased parent protection on the development of autonomy and interpersonal relationships as the children enter adolescence.
Available from: Jacqueline M Mcgrath
- "However, in a study of parents of 217 eight-year-old extremely low birth weight (ELBW), Wightman found that parents of ELBW children have higher rates of overprotection and higher scores on the control subscale than parents of normal weight children . Studies indicate that the construct of the parent perception of child vulnerability is independent from that of overprotection . However a mother who is overprotective may, at the same time, perceive her child to be vulnerable. "
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ABSTRACT: No instrument exists that measures student perceptions of the faculty role. Such a measure is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at attracting students to the faculty career path. We developed the Nurse Educator Scale (NES). The initial scale items were generated using the social cognitive career theory (SCCT) constructs and were reviewed by an expert panel to ensure content validity. Exploratory factor analysis was used. The optimized 25-item, 7-point Likert scale has a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.85, with a total variance of 42%. The underlying factor structure supported three defining characteristics congruent with SCCT: outcome expectations (alpha = 0.79), relevant knowledge (alpha = 0.67), and social influence (alpha = 0.80). A stand-alone, item-measuring goal setting was also supported. The NES provides a valid and reliable measure of students' intentions and motivations to pursue a future career as a nurse educator or scientist. [J Nurs Educ. 2013;52(x):xxx-xxx.].
Journal of Nursing Education 04/2013; 52(6):1-7. DOI:10.3928/01484834-20130430-03 · 0.91 Impact Factor
Available from: Elaine Borawski
- "In our recent study on parental protection of this cohort which included the neurologically abnormal subset of children, we found that child neurologic abnormality was one of the major determinants of increased parental protection (Wightman et al., 2007). Increased parental protection is also more common in low-income families and poor neighborhoods and may represent an adaptive response to dangers posed by such neighborhoods (McLoyd, 1998). "
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ABSTRACT: To examine neighborhood effects on academic achievement of children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW <1000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW) controls.
The study included 183 8-year-old children with ELBW born during 1992-1995 and 176 sociodemographically similar NBW controls. Academic achievement was measured via The Woodcock-Johnson III Academic Skills Cluster.
Children with ELBW had significantly lower achievement scores (89 +/- 16 vs. 97 +/- 13). A multilevel estimation of predictors of academic achievement revealed that neighborhood poverty was significantly associated with lower achievement (beta = -.17; 95% CI -.3, -.05; p < .01). Additional correlates included birth weight status, male sex, and parent ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Family characteristics included maternal education and parent protection.
Neighborhood characteristics affect academic achievement of both children with ELBW and NBW controls, over and above individual and family influences. Interventions designed to address family and neighborhood factors may potentially improve these outcomes.
Journal of Pediatric Psychology 08/2009; 35(3):275-83. DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsp057 · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the relationship between special health care needs and social-emotional and learning competence in the early years, reporting on two waves of data from the Kindergarten Cohort of Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC). Six hundred and fifty children were identified through the two-question Special Health Care Needs Screener as having special health care needs. Children with special health care needs were more likely to be male, to have been of low birth weight, to be taking prescription medications, to be diagnosed with a specific health condition and to be from families where the mother was less well educated. These children scored significantly lower on teacher-rated social-emotional and learning competencies prior to school compared to a control group of children without special health care needs. Multiple regression analyses indicated that being identified with a special health care need prior to school predicted lower social-emotional and learning competencies in the early years of school. Results are discussed in terms of the implications for policy and practice.
International Journal of Early Childhood 04/2012; 45(1). DOI:10.1007/s13158-012-0066-x
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