Long-term school outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A population-based perspective
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to compare long-term school outcomes (academic achievement in reading, absenteeism, grade retention, and school dropout) for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) versus those without AD/HD.
Subjects included 370 children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718) and 740 non-AD/HD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a median age of 18.4 years (AD/HD cases) or 18.3 years (non-AD/HD controls). The complete school record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on reading achievement (last available California Achievement Test reading score), absenteeism (number/percentage of school days absent at each grade level), grade retention (having to repeat an entire grade in the subsequent school year), and school dropout (failure to graduate from high school).
Median reading achievement scores at age 12.8 years (expressed as a national percentile) were significantly different for AD/HD cases and non-AD/HD controls (45 vs 73). Results were similar for both boys and girls with AD/HD. Median percentage of days absent was statistically significantly higher for children with AD/HD versus those without AD/HD, although the difference was relatively small in absolute number of days absent. Subjects with AD/HD were three times more likely to be retained a grade. Similarly, subjects with AD/HD were 2.7 times more likely to drop out before high school graduation (22.9%) than non-AD/HD controls (10.0%).
The results of this population-based study clearly demonstrate the association between AD/HD and poor long-term school outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: The 1432 participants were mainly male (74.8%), aged 10–18 (M = 15.82, SD = 1.59) African-American juveniles arrested in a moderately sized Mid-Atlantic city in the USA. Using Conners Comprehensive Behavior Rating Scales-Self Report scores, two parallel cluster analyses were developed, one based on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom frequency and another based on ADHD symptom count. ADHD profiles were good predictors of functioning in both cluster solutions, as evidenced by differences in other indices of mental health (e.g. symptoms of depression) and academic problems across and between clusters. Further inquiry showed that ADHD symptom frequency clustering had a larger effect on functioning than symptom count clustering. Results also corroborated with the hypothesis that ADHD is best conceptualized as a single disorder that differs in symptom elevation. Higher rates of severe ADHD symptoms were identified in females than males, but no differences were found across age or socioeconomic groups.Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology 10/2013; 24(5):570-593. DOI:10.1080/14789949.2013.823218 · 0.88 Impact Factor
Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse 04/2014; 23(3):169-176. DOI:10.1080/1067828X.2013.786921 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research investigating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and co-occurring disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, and depression has surged in popularity; however, the developmental relations between ADHD and these comorbid conditions remain poorly understood. The current paper uses a developmental psychopathology perspective to examine conditions commonly comorbid with ADHD during late childhood through adolescence. First, we present evidence for ADHD and comorbid disorders. Next, we discuss emotion regulation and its associations with ADHD. The role of parenting behaviors in the development and maintenance of emotion regulation difficulties and comorbid disorders among children with ADHD is explored. An illustrative example of emotion regulation and parenting over the course of development is provided to demonstrate bidirectional relations among these constructs. We then present an integrated conceptual model of emotion regulation as a shared risk process that may lead to different comorbid conditions among children with ADHD. Implications and directions for future research are presented.Child Psychiatry and Human Development 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10578-015-0534-2 · 1.93 Impact Factor