Long-Term School Outcomes for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Perspective
Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics
(Impact Factor: 2.13).
09/2007; 28(4):265-73. DOI: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e31811ff87d
The purpose of this study was to compare long-term school outcomes (academic achievement in reading, absenteeism, grade retention, and school dropout) for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) versus those without AD/HD.
Subjects included 370 children with research-identified AD/HD from a 1976-1982 population-based birth cohort (N = 5718) and 740 non-AD/HD control subjects from the same birth cohort, matched by gender and age. All subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until a median age of 18.4 years (AD/HD cases) or 18.3 years (non-AD/HD controls). The complete school record for each subject was reviewed to obtain information on reading achievement (last available California Achievement Test reading score), absenteeism (number/percentage of school days absent at each grade level), grade retention (having to repeat an entire grade in the subsequent school year), and school dropout (failure to graduate from high school).
Median reading achievement scores at age 12.8 years (expressed as a national percentile) were significantly different for AD/HD cases and non-AD/HD controls (45 vs 73). Results were similar for both boys and girls with AD/HD. Median percentage of days absent was statistically significantly higher for children with AD/HD versus those without AD/HD, although the difference was relatively small in absolute number of days absent. Subjects with AD/HD were three times more likely to be retained a grade. Similarly, subjects with AD/HD were 2.7 times more likely to drop out before high school graduation (22.9%) than non-AD/HD controls (10.0%).
The results of this population-based study clearly demonstrate the association between AD/HD and poor long-term school outcomes.
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Available from: Carlos Enrique Yeguez
- "some, but not others (Barbaresi et al. 2007; Barkley et al. 2002). Outside of stimulant medication (Abikoff et al. 2009), little is known about factors that may attenuate the severity of adolescent OTP deficits, serving as key intervention mechanisms. "
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ABSTRACT: Organization, Time Management, and Planning (OTP) problems are a key mechanism of academic failure for adolescents with ADHD. Parents may be well positioned to promote remediation of these deficits; yet, almost nothing is known about OTP management behaviors among parents of middle and high school students with ADHD. In a sample of 299 well-diagnosed adolescents with ADHD, a measure of parental OTP management was psychometrically validated. Latent Class Analysis was conducted to detect distinct patterns of parental OTP management and yielded four unique classes: Parental Control (18.7 %), Parent-Teen Collaboration (20.4 %), Homework Assistance (20.4 %), and Uninvolved (40.5 %). Logistic Regression analyses indicated that mal-adaptive parental OTP strategies were related to higher levels of parent and adolescent psychopathology. Parental OTP management did not relate to current adolescent OTP skills or GPA, indicating that parents did not select OTP management strategies in immediate response to adolescent functioning. Implications for parent-directed intervention are discussed.
Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10862-015-9515-9 · 1.55 Impact Factor
Available from: Monic P Behnken
- "Caused by dysfunctional neural networks in the brain, ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed behavioral disorder in children, with an overall prevalence rate of 9.5% in those aged 4 to 17 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). In childhood, this diagnosis is associated with increased risk for academic failure (Barbaresi, Katusic, Colligan, Weaver, & Jacobsen, 2007), frequent parent–child conflicts, and accidental injuries (Danforth, Barkley, & Stokes, 1991). ADHD also increases the risk of becoming involved with the juvenile justice system (DeLisi et al., 2011; Eme, 2009; Pelham, Fabiano, & Massetti, 2005). "
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The purpose of this study is to propose a mediational model for the mechanisms through which a diagnosis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder between the ages of 10 and 12 predicts positive and negative early adult outcomes for African Americans.
The study sample (n = 211) was drawn from the Des Moines, Iowa subsample of the Family and Community Health Study. Participants were first assessed between the ages of 10 and 12, again between the ages of 12 and 18, and finally at 18 to 23.
Findings indicate that a diagnosis of ADHD before age 13 indirectly predicted subsequent exclusionary school discipline and juvenile arrest in adolescence, and both arrests and educational attainment in young adulthood.
These findings offer support for the School to Prison Pipeline model, showing that for some African American children, a childhood diagnosis of ADHD can lead to negative school experiences that result in harsh school-based discipline, which in turn open the door to justice system involvement spanning several developmental stages.
Journal of Criminal Justice 03/2014; 42(2):95–103. DOI:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2013.12.005 · 1.24 Impact Factor
Available from: Abdulbari Bener
- "Additionally, the purpose of this study was to compare long-term school outcomes (academic achievement in reading, absenteeism, grade retention, and school dropout) for children with ADHD versus those without ADHD (Barbaresi et al., 2007). Median reading achievement scores at age 12.8 years (expressed as a national percentile) were significantly different for ADHD cases and non-ADHD controls (45 vs 73). "
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ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavioral disorders in children and recent studies reported a relationship between low levels of Vitamin D and incidence of ADHD.
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between vitamin D deficiency and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Also, to study the impact and role of vitamin D on the development of ADH in children.
This is a case-control study which was conducted in children below 18 years of age from June 2011 to May 2013 at the School Health and Primary Health care Clinics, Qatar.
The study was based on 1,331 cases and 1,331 controls. The data collection instrument included socio-demographic & clinical data, physician diagnosis family history, BMI, and serum 25(OH) vitamin D, calcium, albumin, billirubin, magnesium, calcium, cholesterol, urea, triglyceride and phosphorus. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were performed.
Of the total number of 3470 children surveyed, 1331 of ADHD and 1,331 of healthy children gave their consent to participate in this study. The mean age (± SD, in years) for ADHD versus control children was 10.63±3.4 vs. 10.77±3.4. Overweight (7.7% vs 9.4%) and obesity (4.6% vs 7.7%) were significantly lower in ADHD children compared to their counterparts (P=0.001). Vitamin D deficiency was considerably higher in ADHD children compared to healthy children. The mean value of vitamin D in ADHD children was much lower than the normal value and there was a significant difference found in the mean values of vitamin D between ADHD (16.6±7.8 with median 16) and control children (23.5±9.9) (p<0.0001) and with median 23 (p = 0.006). Mean values of Calcium and phosphorous were significantly higher in control compared to ADHD children (p<0.001). 1331 of all ADHD children had 19.1% had severe vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml), 44.9% has moderate insufficient levels (between 10-20 ng/ml), 27.3% has mild insufficient levels (between 20-30 ng/ml) and only 8.1% of ADHD had sufficient serum vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that household income, poor relationship between parents, mothers' occupation, consanguinity, BMI in percentiles, low duration of time under sun light, physical activity, low serum calcium level and low vitamin D level were considered as the main risk factors associated with the ADHD after adjusting for age, gender and other variables.
The study showed that vitamin D deficiency was higher in ADHD children compared to healthy children. Supplementing infants with vitamin D might be a safe and effective strategy for reducing the risk of ADHD, but, further genomic and some other test and relevant studies need to be done.
Global journal of health science 02/2014; 6(2):47-57. DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p47
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