Enhanced antitumor effect of combined triptolide and ionizing radiation.
ABSTRACT The lack of effective treatment for pancreatic cancer results in a very low survival rate. This study explores the enhancement of the therapeutic effect on human pancreatic cancer via the combination of triptolide and ionizing radiation (IR).
In vitro AsPC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with triptolide alone, IR alone, or triptolide plus IR. Cell proliferation was analyzed with sulforhodamine B (SRB) method and clonogenic survival; comparison of apoptosis induced by the above treatment was analyzed by annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) staining. Furthermore, the expression of apoptotic pathway intermediates was measured by the assay of caspase activity and Western blot. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was determined by JC-1 assay. In vivo, AsPC-1 xenografts were treated with 0.25 mg/kg triptolide, 10 Gy IR, or triptolide plus IR. The tumors were measured for volume and weight at the end of the experiment. Tumor tissues were tested for terminal nucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) and immunohistochemistry.
The combination of triptolide plus IR reduced cell survival to 21% and enhanced apoptosis, compared with single treatment. In vivo, tumor growth of AsPC-1 xenografts was reduced further in the group treated with triptolide plus IR compared with single treatment. TUNEL and immunohistochemistry of caspase-3 cleavage in tumor tissues indicated that the combination of triptolide plus IR resulted in significantly enhanced apoptosis compared with single treatments.
Triptolide in combination with ionizing radiation produced synergistic antitumor effects on pancreatic cancer both in vitro and in vivo and seems promising in the combined modality therapy of pancreatic cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Icaritin (ICT) is a hydrolytic form of icariin isolated from plants of the genus Epimedium. This study was to investigate the radiosensitization effect of icaritin and its possible underlying mechanism using murine 4T1 breast cancer cells. The combination of Icaritin at 3 µM or 6 µM with 6 or 8 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR) in the clonogenic assay yielded an ER (enhancement ratio) of 1.18 or 1.28, CI (combination index) of 0.38 or 0.19 and DRI (dose reducing index) of 2.51 or 5.07, respectively. These strongly suggest that Icaritin exerted a synergistic killing (?) effect with radiation on the tumor cells. This effect might relate with bioactivities of ICT: 1) exert an anti-proliferative effect in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which is different from IR killing effect but likely work together with the IR effect; 2) suppress the IR-induced activation of two survival paths, ERK1/2 and AKT; 3) induce the G2/M blockage, enhancing IR killing effect; and 4) synergize with IR to enhance cell apoptosis. In addition, ICT suppressed angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Taken together, ICT is a new radiosensitizer and can enhance anti-cancer effect of IR or other therapies.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71347. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Triptolide (TPL) is a diterpenoid triepoxide that effectively induces apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. However, the detailed mechanism by which TPL activates caspase cascade remains elusive. This study aimed to examine the antitumor effects of TPL against pancreatic cancer and investigate the underlying mechanism. Cell proliferation was evaluated by sulforhodamine B assay. The apoptosis was evaluated by caspase activity assay, Western blot and flow cytometry. DcR3 level was measured by ELISA. AsPC-1 xenografts were established to compare the in vivo antitumor effects of TPL and Gemcitabine. TPL inhibited the proliferation and induced the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TPL also inhibited DcR3 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated DcR3 knockdown sensitized pancreatic cancer cells to TPL-induced apoptosis. In vivo, DcR3 siRNA significantly enhanced TPL-induced apoptosis and tumor growth inhibition. Moreover, TPL showed less toxicity compared to Gemcitabine in mice model. TPL induces the apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via the downregulation of DcR3 expression and has the potential as an effective agent against pancreatic cancer.Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology 05/2012; 138(9):1597-605. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Triptolide, an active compound extracted from Chinese herb Leigongteng (Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.), shows a broad-spectrum of anticancer activity through its cytotoxicity. However, the efficacy of triptolide on laryngocarcinoma rarely been evaluated, and the mechanism by which triptolide-induced cellular apoptosis is still not well understood. In this study, we found that triptolide significantly inhibited the laryngocarcinoma HEp-2 cells proliferation, migration and survivability. Triptolide induces HEp-2 cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and apoptosis through intrinsic and extrinsic pathways since both caspase-8 and -9 are activated. Moreover, triptolide enhances p53 expression by increasing its stability via down-regulation of E6 and E6AP. Increased p53 transactivates down-stream target genes to initiate apoptosis. In addition, we found that short time treatment with triptolide induced DNA damage, which was consistent with the increase in p53. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of triptolide is decreased by p53 knockdown or use of caspases inhibitor. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that triptolide inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in laryngocarcinoma cells by enhancing p53 expression and activating p53 functions through induction of DNA damage and suppression of E6 mediated p53 degradation. These studies indicate that triptolide is a potential anti-laryngocarcinoma drug.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e80784. · 3.73 Impact Factor