A heterozygous mutation disrupting the SPAG16 gene results in biochemical instability of central apparatus components of the human sperm axoneme
ABSTRACT The SPAG16 gene encodes two major transcripts, one for the 71-kDa SPAG16L, which is the orthologue of the Chlamydomonas rheinhardtii central apparatus protein PF20, and a smaller transcript, which codes for the 35-kDa SPAG16S nuclear protein that represents the C-terminus (exons 11-16) of SPAG16L. We have previously reported that a targeted mutation in exon 11 of the Spag16 gene impairs spermatogenesis and prevents transmission of the mutant allele in chimeric mice. In the present report, we describe a heterozygous mutation in exon 13 of the SPAG16 gene, which causes a frame shift and premature stop codon, affording the opportunity to compare mutations with similar impacts on SPAG16L and SPAG16S for male reproductive function in mice and men. We studied two male heterozygotes for the SPAG16 mutation, both of which were fertile. Freezing-boiling of isolated sperm from both affected males resulted in the loss of the SPAG16L protein, SPAG6, another central apparatus protein that interacts with SPAG16L, and the 28-kDa fragment of SPAG17, which associates with SPAG6. These proteins were also lost after freezing-boiling cycles of sperm extracts from mice that were heterozygous for an inactivating mutation (exons 2 and 3) in Spag16. Our findings suggest that a heterozygous mutation that affects both SPAG16L and SPAG16S does not cause male infertility in man, but is associated with reduced stability of the interacting proteins of the central apparatus in response to a thermal challenge, a phenotype shared by the sperm of mice heterozygous for a mutation that affects SPAG16L.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with heterogeneous clinical, genetic and pathophysiological characteristics. The establishment of reliable biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of MS has therefore proven to be very difficult. During the last decades, mounting evidence has been collected for the involvement of B cells and antibodies in MS pathogenesis. A wide variety of autoantibodies has been described in MS and these autoantibodies could be useful biomarkers for MS. Since demyelination is a key component of MS pathogenesis, myelin antigens were first investigated as primary targets of autoantibodies in MS. More recently, it became evident that the humoral autoimmune response is not restricted to myelin but is much more widespread throughout the brain. Autoantibodies are formed against different CNS cell types, including neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, and even immune cells, indicating the complex heterogeneity of the disease. In this review, we give an extensive overview of the known autoantibody targets in MS, not according to the traditional subdivision of myelin and non-myelin components but according to each of the affected cell types, including the most recently described target antigens.Autoimmunity Reviews 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2014.07.002 · 7.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Motile cilia on the inner lining of the oviductal epithelium play a central role in ovum transport toward the uterus and subsequent fertilization by sperm. While the basic ultrastructure of 9+2 motile cilia (nine peripheral microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair) has been characterized, many important steps of ciliogenesis remain poorly understood. Results: Our previous studies on mammalian Fused (Fu) (Stk36), a putative serine-threonine kinase, reveal a critical function of Fu in central pair construction and cilia orientation of motile cilia that line the tracheal and ependymal epithelia. These findings identify a novel regulatory component for these processes. In this study, we show that Fu is expressed in the multi-ciliated oviductal epithelium in several vertebrates, suggesting a conserved function of Fu in the oviduct. In support of this, analysis of Fu-deficient mouse oviducts uncovers a similar role of Fu in central pair construction and cilia orientation. We also demonstrate that Fu localizes to motile cilia and physically associates with kinesin Kif27 located at the cilium base and known central pair components Spag16 and Pcdp1. Conclusions: Our results delineate a novel pathway for central pair apparatus assembly and add important insight to the biogenesis and function of oviductal motile cilia. Developmental Dynamics, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 11/2013; 242(11). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24024 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite the great advances in sequencing technologies, genomic and transcriptomic information for marine non-model species with ecological, evolutionary, and economical interest is still scarce. In this work we aimed to identify genes expressed during spermatogenesis in the functional hermaphrodite scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae), with the purpose of obtaining a panel of genes that would allow for the study of differentially transcribed genes between diploid and triploid scallops in the context of meiotic arrest and reproductive sterility. Because our aim was to isolate genes involved in meiosis and other testis maturation-related processes, we generated suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries of testis vs. inactive gonad. We obtained 352 and 177 ESTs by clone sequencing, and using pyrosequencing (454-Roche) we maximized the identified ESTs to 34,276 reads. A total of 1,153 genes from the testis library had a blastx hit and GO annotation, including genes specific for meiosis, spermatogenesis, sex-differentiation, and transposable elements. Some of the identified meiosis genes function in chromosome pairing (scp2, scp3), recombination and DNA repair (dmc1, rad51, ccnb1ip1/hei10), and meiotic checkpoints (rad1, hormad1, dtl/cdt2). Gene expression analyses in different gametogenic stages in both sexual regions of the gonad of meiosis genes confirmed that the expression was specific or increased towards the maturing testis. Spermatogenesis genes included known testis-specific ones (kelch-10, shippo1, adad1), with some of these known to be associated to sterility. Sex differentiation genes included one of the most conserved genes at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade (dmrt1). Transcript from transposable elements, reverse transcriptase, and transposases in this library evidenced that transposition is an active process during spermatogenesis in N. subnodosus. In relation to the inactive library, we identified 833 transcripts with functional annotation related to activation of the transcription and translation machinery, as well as to germline control and maintenance.PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e73176. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073176 · 3.53 Impact Factor