CCG-1423: A small-molecule inhibitor of RhoA transcriptional signaling
ABSTRACT Lysophosphatidic acid receptors stimulate a Galpha(12/13)/RhoA-dependent gene transcription program involving the serum response factor (SRF) and its coactivator and oncogene, megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1). Inhibitors of this pathway could serve as useful biological probes and potential cancer therapeutic agents. Through a transcription-based high-throughput serum response element-luciferase screening assay, we identified two small-molecule inhibitors of this pathway. Mechanistic studies on the more potent CCG-1423 show that it acts downstream of Rho because it blocks SRE.L-driven transcription stimulated by Galpha(12)Q231L, Galpha(13)Q226L, RhoA-G14V, and RhoC-G14V. The ability of CCG-1423 to block transcription activated by MKL1, but not that induced by SRF-VP16 or GAL4-VP16, suggests a mechanism targeting MKL/SRF-dependent transcriptional activation that does not involve alterations in DNA binding. Consistent with its role as a Rho/SRF pathway inhibitor, CCG-1423 displays activity in several in vitro cancer cell functional assays. CCG-1423 potently (<1 mumol/L) inhibits lysophosphatidic acid-induced DNA synthesis in PC-3 prostate cancer cells, and whereas it inhibits the growth of RhoC-overexpressing melanoma lines (A375M2 and SK-Mel-147) at nanomolar concentrations, it is less active on related lines (A375 and SK-Mel-28) that express lower levels of Rho. Similarly, CCG-1423 selectively stimulates apoptosis of the metastasis-prone, RhoC-overexpressing melanoma cell line (A375M2) compared with the parental cell line (A375). CCG-1423 inhibited Rho-dependent invasion by PC-3 prostate cancer cells, whereas it did not affect the Galpha(i)-dependent invasion by the SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line. Thus, based on its profile, CCG-1423 is a promising lead compound for the development of novel pharmacologic tools to disrupt transcriptional responses of the Rho pathway in cancer.
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- "This is one of the major pathways activated within epithelial cells by the combination of TGFβ and matrix rigidity . In addition, small molecule inhibitors including CCG-1423 and its analogs block SRF/MRTFA signaling [191,192]. Namely, CCG-1423 blocks the interaction of MRTFA with importin alpha/beta 1 thus preventing the nuclear import of MRTFA . Furthermore, CCG-1423 has been shown to successfully inhibit TGFβ-induced expression of αSMA [102,104,194]. "
ABSTRACT: Fibrosis, a disease that results in loss of organ function, contributes to a significant number of deaths worldwide and sustained fibrotic activation has been suggested to increase the risk of developing cancer in a variety of tissues. Fibrogenesis and tumor progression are regulated in part through the activation and activity of myofibroblasts. Increasing evidence links myofibroblasts found within fibrotic lesions and the tumor microenvironment to a process termed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotypic change in which epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristics. EMT can be stimulated by soluble signals, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and recent studies have identified a role for mechanical cues in directing EMT. In this review, we describe the role that EMT plays in fibrogenesis and in the progression of cancer, with particular emphasis placed on biophysical signaling mechanisms that control the EMT program. We further describe specific TGFβ-induced intracellular signaling cascades that are affected by cell- and tissue-level mechanics. Finally, we highlight the implications of mechanical induction of EMT on the development of treatments and targeted intervention strategies for fibrosis and cancer.Clinical and Translational Medicine 07/2014; 3(1):23. DOI:10.1186/2001-1326-3-23
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- "3). A drug inhibiting MKL1-dependent transcription, CCG-1423 (Evelyn et al., 2007), is already available, but more investigations should be performed to reveal a potential relevance to breast cancer treatment. "
ABSTRACT: Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is generally considered to be a good prognostic marker because almost 70% of ERα-positive tumors respond to anti-hormone therapies. Unfortunately, during cancer progression, mammary tumors can escape from estrogen control, resulting in resistance to treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that activation of the actin/megakaryoblastic leukemia 1 (MKL1) signaling pathway promotes the hormonal escape of estrogen-sensitive breast cancer cell lines. The actin/MKL1 signaling pathway is silenced in differentiated ERα-positive breast cancer MCF-7 and T47D cell lines and active in ERα-negative HMT-3522 T4-2 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition. We showed that MKL1 activation in MCF-7 cells, either by modulating actin dynamics or using MKL1 mutants, down-regulates ERα expression and abolishes E2-dependent cell growth. Interestingly, the constitutively active form of MKL1 represses PR and HER2 expression in these cells and increases the expression of HB-EGF, TGFβ, and amphiregulin growth factors in an E2-independent manner. The resulting expression profile (ER-, PR-, HER2-) typically corresponds to the triple-negative breast cancer expression profile.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2014.03.009 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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- "CCG-1423 was originally identified as an inhibitor of RhoA signaling . Although CCG-1423 has been reported to block the nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A , , the molecular mechanism is yet to be determined. "
ABSTRACT: Epithelial-msenchymal transition (EMT) is closely associated with cancer and tissue fibrosis. The nuclear accumulation of myocardin-related transcription factor A (MRTF-A/MAL/MKL1) plays a vital role in EMT. In various cells treated with CCG-1423, a novel inhibitor of Rho signaling, the nuclear accumulation of MRTF-A is inhibited. However, the molecular target of this inhibitor has not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of this effect of CCG-1423. The interaction between MRTF-A and importin α/β1 was inhibited by CCG-1423, but monomeric G-actin binding to MRTF-A was not inhibited. We coupled Sepharose with CCG-1423 (CCG-1423 Sepharose) to investigate this mechanism. A pull-down assay using CCG-1423 Sepharose revealed the direct binding of CCG-1423 to MRTF-A. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminal basic domain (NB) of MRTF-A, which acts as a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) of MRTF-A, was the binding site for CCG-1423. G-actin did not bind to CCG-1423 Sepharose, but the interaction between MRTF-A and CCG-1423 Sepharose was reduced in the presence of G-actin. We attribute this result to the high binding affinity of MRTF-A for G-actin and the proximity of NB to G-actin-binding sites (RPEL motifs). Therefore, when MRTF-A forms a complex with G-actin, the binding of CCG-1423 to NB is expected to be blocked. NF-E2 related factor 2, which contains three distinct basic amino acid-rich NLSs, did not bind to CCG-1423 Sepharose, but other RPEL-containing proteins such as MRTF-B, myocardin, and Phactr1 bound to CCG-1423 Sepharose. These results suggest that the specific binding of CCG-1423 to the NLSs of RPEL-containing proteins. Our proposal to explain the inhibitory action of CCG-1423 is as follows: When the G-actin pool is depleted, CCG-1423 binds specifically to the NLS of MRTF-A/B and prevents the interaction between MRTF-A/B and importin α/β1, resulting in inhibition of the nuclear import of MRTF-A/B.PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e89016. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089016 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Chris R Evelyn