Genetic susceptibility, HIV infection, and the kidney.
ABSTRACT In recent years, the sequencing of mammalian and microbial genomes has provided the opportunity to study how genetic variation in the host and pathogen influence the course of infectious disease. In the case of HIV-1 infection, such studies have led to identification of key viral proteins that determine pathogenicity, immune evasion, or drug resistance. In addition, candidate gene association studies have uncovered a large number of host genetic variants that influence the outcome of infection and some organ-specific complications. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a pathologically distinct complication of HIV infection. Interindividual variability in incidence, skewed ethnic distribution, and familial aggregation of HIVAN with other forms of ESRD have suggested genetic susceptibility as a major contributing factor. This article reviews the host genetic factors that influence the course of HIV-1 infection and discusses murine models that have increased the understanding of HIVAN pathogenesis and demonstrated the role of genetic background on determination of disease.
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ABSTRACT: Host immunogenetic variations strongly influence the severity of group A streptococcus sepsis by modulating responses to streptococcal superantigens (Strep-SAgs). Although HLA-II-DR15/DQ6 alleles strongly protect against severe sepsis, HLA-II-DR14/DR7/DQ5 alleles significantly increase the risk for toxic shock syndrome. We found that, regardless of individual variations in TCR-Vβ repertoires, the presentation of Strep-SAgs by the protective HLA-II-DR15/DQ6 alleles significantly attenuated proliferative responses to Strep-SAgs, whereas their presentation by the high-risk alleles augmented it. Importantly, HLA-II variations differentially polarized cytokine responses to Strep-SAgs: the presentation of Strep-SAgs by HLA-II-DR15/DQ6 alleles elicited significantly higher ratios of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) to proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IFN-γ) than did their presentation by the high-risk HLA-II alleles. Adding exogenous rIL-10 significantly attenuated responses to Strep-SAgs presented by the high-risk HLA-II alleles but did not completely block the response; instead, it reduced it to a level comparable to that seen when these superantigens were presented by the protective HLA-II alleles. Furthermore, adding neutralizing anti-IL-10 Abs augmented Strep-SAg responses in the presence of protective HLA-II alleles to the same level as (but no higher than) that seen when the superantigens were presented by the high-risk alleles. Our findings provide a molecular basis for the role of HLA-II allelic variations in modulating streptococcal sepsis outcomes and suggest the presence of an internal control mechanism that maintains superantigen responses within a defined range, which helps to eradicate the infection while attenuating pathological inflammatory responses that can inflict more harm than the infection itself.The Journal of Immunology 03/2011; 186(5):3156-63. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A chromosome 22q13 locus strongly associates with increased risk for idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), HIV-1-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and hypertensive ESRD among individuals of African descent. Although initial studies implicated MYH9, more recent analyses localized the strongest association within the neighboring APOL1 gene. In this replication study, we examined the six top-most associated variants in APOL1 and MYH9 in an independent cohort of African Americans with various nephropathies (44 with FSGS, 21 with HIVAN, 32 with IgA nephropathy, and 74 healthy controls). All six variants associated with FSGS and HIVAN (additive ORs, 1.8 to 3.0; P values 3 × 10(-2) to 5 × 10(-5)) but not with IgA nephropathy. In conditional and haplotype analyses, two APOL1 haplotypes accounted for virtually all of the association with FSGS and HIVAN on chromosome 22q13 (haplotype P value = 5.6 × 10(-8)). To assess the role of MYH9 deficiency in nephropathy, we crossbred Myh9-haploinsufficient mice (Myh9(+/-)) with HIV-1 transgenic mice. Myh9(+/-) mice were healthy and did not demonstrate overt proteinuria or nephropathy, irrespective of the presence of the HIV-1 transgene. These data further support the strong association of genetic variants in APOL1 with susceptibility to FSGS and HIVAN among African Americans.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2011; 22(11):1991-6. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood HIV-1 associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a clinical and renal histological disease characterized by heavy proteinuria associated with focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia in combination with microcystic tubular dilatation. These lesions lead to renal enlargement and rapid progression to kidney failure. Children of African ancestry have a unique susceptibility to developing HIVAN. It is estimated that approximately 300,000 HIV-infected children living in the sub-Saharan Africa could develop HIVAN if they do not receive appropriate antiretroviral therapy. This article discusses recent developments and controversies related to the pathogenesis of childhood HIVAN. The role of host genetic factors, including the newly identified variants in the APOL1 gene, is discussed in the context of previous studies that established the pathological paradigm for HIVAN, and our current understanding of the functional genomics analysis. Hopefully, these advances will provide new research opportunities to generate better treatments for children with HIVAN.Future Virology 07/2011; 6(7):883-894. · 0.96 Impact Factor