Audiological and electrocochleography findings in hearing-impaired children with connexin 26 mutations and otoacoustic emissions.
ABSTRACT We recorded cochlear potentials by transtympanic electrocochleography (ECochG) in three hearing-impaired children with GJB2 mutation who showed otoacoustic emissions. Pure tone thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were also obtained. Subjects 1 (35delG/35delG) and 3 (M34T/wt) had profound hearing loss and showed the picture of auditory neuropathy (AN) as DPOAEs were detected with absent ABRs in both ears. The hearing impairment found in subject 2 (35delG/35delG) was profound in the right ear and moderate in the left ear. Both DPOAEs and ABRs with normal latencies and morphology were recorded only from the left ear. On the ECochG recording the cochlear microphonic was obtained from all children. No compound action potential (CAP) was detected in subject 1. A neural response was recorded only from the left ear in subject 2 with a threshold corresponding to the audiometric threshold while no CAP was detected on the right side. The ECochG obtained from subject 3 showed a low-amplitude broad negative deflection which was identifiable down to low stimulus levels. This response decreased in amplitude and duration when utilizing a high-rate stimulation paradigm. The amount of amplitude reduction was close to that calculated for normal ears, thus revealing the presence of an adapting neural component. These findings indicate that patients with GJB2 mutations and preserved outer hair cells function could present with the picture of AN. The hearing impairment is underlain by a selective inner hair cell loss or a lesion involving the synapses and/or the auditory nerve terminals. We suggest that neonatal hyperbilirubinemia may play a role in protecting outer hair cells against the damage induced by GJB2 mutations.
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ABSTRACT: Hearing impairment (HI) affects 1 in 650 newborns, which makes it the most common congenital sensory impairment. Despite extraordinary genetic heterogeneity, mutations in one gene, GJB2, which encodes the connexin 26 protein and is involved in inner ear homeostasis, are found in up to 50% of patients with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Because of the high frequency of GJB2 mutations, mutation analysis of this gene is widely available as a diagnostic test. In this study, we assessed the association between genotype and degree of hearing loss in persons with HI and biallelic GJB2 mutations. We performed cross-sectional analyses of GJB2 genotype and audiometric data from 1,531 persons, from 16 different countries, with autosomal recessive, mild-to-profound nonsyndromic HI. The median age of all participants was 8 years; 90% of persons were within the age range of 0-26 years. Of the 83 different mutations identified, 47 were classified as nontruncating, and 36 as truncating. A total of 153 different genotypes were found, of which 56 were homozygous truncating (T/T), 30 were homozygous nontruncating (NT/NT), and 67 were compound heterozygous truncating/nontruncating (T/NT). The degree of HI associated with biallelic truncating mutations was significantly more severe than the HI associated with biallelic nontruncating mutations (P<.0001). The HI of 48 different genotypes was less severe than that of 35delG homozygotes. Several common mutations (M34T, V37I, and L90P) were associated with mild-to-moderate HI (median 25-40 dB). Two genotypes--35delG/R143W (median 105 dB) and 35delG/dela(GJB6-D13S1830) (median 108 dB)--had significantly more-severe HI than that of 35delG homozygotes.The American Journal of Human Genetics 12/2005; 77(6):945-57. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: High levels of bilirubin are neurotoxic and may result in deafness or auditory neuropathy/auditory dyssynchrony (AN/AD). The jaundiced (jj) Gunn rat animal model of kernicterus has electrophysiologic and neuroanatomic abnormalities of brainstem auditory nuclei with normal cochlear microphonic recordings. We examined morphologic changes in the cochlea, spiral ganglion, and auditory nerve and relate these findings to current understanding of AN/AD. At 15 days of age, jj and nonjaundiced (Nj) littermates were injected with sulfadimethoxine (sulfa) and killed 3 days later by transcardial perfusion. Sections were cut through decalcified temporal bones, cochlear nerves, and auditory brainstem and processed for light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical localization of calbindin-D and parvalbumin. Spiral ganglion neurons were severely degenerated with a paucity of myelinated axons in jj animals. Electron microscopy of the intramodilar auditory nerve revealed a lack of large caliber axons in jj-sulfa versus Nj-sulfa controls. Large diameter degenerating axons were characterized by an electron-dense atrophied axis cylinder resembling an axonopathy. Our findings of abnormal spiral ganglion cells and selective loss of large, myelinated auditory nerve fibers with no abnormalities in cochlear hair cells, support the sulfa-treated jj Gunn rat as a model for bilirubin induced AN/AD. The paucity of large caliber neurons undermines temporal coding of auditory information and neural synchrony and demonstrates that in addition to brainstem auditory nuclei, spiral ganglion neurons are selectively vulnerable to bilirubin toxicity.The Laryngoscope 01/2006; 115(12):2167-73. · 1.98 Impact Factor
- PEDIATRICS 07/2004; 113(6):1776-82. · 4.47 Impact Factor