Disposition and metabolic fate of prasugrel in mice, rats, and dogs.
ABSTRACT The disposition and metabolism of prasugrel, a thienopyridine prodrug and a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in vivo, were investigated in mice, rats, and dogs. Prasugrel was rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized. In the mouse and dog, maximum plasma concentration of radioactivity was observed in less than 1 h after an oral [14C]prasugrel dose. Most of the administered prasugrel dose was recovered in the faeces of rats and dogs (72% and 52-73%, respectively), and in mice urine (54%). Prasugrel is hydrolysed by esterases to a thiolactone, which is subsequently metabolized to thiol-containing metabolites. The main circulating thiol-containing metabolite in the three animal species is the pharmacologically active metabolite, R-138727. The thiol-containing metabolites are further metabolized by S-methylation and conjugation with cysteine.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Prasugrel (CS-747, LY640315) is a third-generation thienopyridine, which gained approval by the FDA in 2009 for its use in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Areas covered: This article focuses on the preclinical profile of prasugrel. Using published preclinical and clinical studies, the authors summarize the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of prasugrel and their distinguishing features in efficacy and safety. Expert opinion: Prasugrel has a more rapid, more potent antiplatelet effect with less interindividual response variability when compared to clopidogrel. Those therapeutic advantages are attributed to features of its chemical structure that favor the metabolic conversion of prasugrel to its active metabolite. However, the increased risk of bleeding has been associated with a greater antiplatelet effect and dosing profile; this is especially the case in those patients who are at a higher risk of bleeding complications. It is therefore important for an optimal dosing strategy of prasugrel to be identified to provide a formulation that has the best balance for efficacy and safety.Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 04/2013; DOI:10.1517/17460441.2013.793668 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the mechanisms of platelet activation and options for diagnosing and treating platelet hyperactivity in relation to thrombosis in dogs and cats. Prospective, retrospective, and review articles, as well as textbook chapters in both human and veterinary medicine. Articles were primarily, but not exclusively, retrieved via Medline. In people, platelets are known to play a key role in the development of arterial thrombosis in numerous disease states and antiplatelet drugs are the cornerstone in the treatment of acute events and for prevention in patients at risk. For many years, aspirin was used as the sole antiplatelet drug in people, but the introduction of adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists and integrin α(IIb) β(3) inhibitors has significantly improved outcome in selective groups of patients. The understanding of platelet activation in disease states has increased dramatically over the past decade. Simultaneously, a host of new methods for evaluating platelet function have been developed, which enable primarily researchers, but also clinicians to monitor the activity of platelets. Many of these methods have been validated for research purposes, but few have found their way to the clinics. Not a single correctly randomized clinical trial has been carried out with any antiplatelet drug for any indication in dogs or cats, and consequently, treatment is empiric and largely based on expert opinion or data from experimental studies. The pathogenesis of thromboembolic disease is complex and multifactorial and the role of hyperactive platelets in this etiology remains to be clarified in most of the diseases associated with thrombosis in dogs and cats. Until efficacy data from well-designed studies are available, antithrombotic therapy should consist of close monitoring, good supportive care, and judicious empirical use of antiplatelet agents.02/2012; 22(1):42-58. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-4431.2011.00708.x
Article: Prasugrel.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Prasugrel is a third-generation thienopyridine which selectively inhibits the platelet P2Y(12) receptor more rapidly, more potently, and with less interindividual response variability compared with the second-generation thienopyridine clopidogrel. Large-scale phase III clinical testing showed that in high-to moderate-risk acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, prasugrel translates into a greater reduction in ischemic events, including stent thrombosis, in the short and long term compared to clopidogrel. Prasugrel, however, is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding, which is more pronounced in certain patient subgroups. The ideal patient population for prasugrel use are those patients without prior transient ischemic attack/stroke, <75 years of age and >60 kg in whom the greatest ischemic benefit is achieved without a significant increase in major bleeding risk. Dose modifications in specific populations or at given time-points may represent an avenue to minimize bleeding risk and therefore maximize the clinical benefit of prasugrel. Ongoing clinical studies with prasugrel will better define the safety and efficacy profiles of this agent and potentially set the basis for new indications for use.Advances in cardiology 01/2012; 47:39-63. DOI:10.1159/000338044