Personal reflection is important for acquiring, maintaining and enhancing balanced medical professionalism. A new scale, the Groningen Reflection Ability Scale (GRAS), was developed to measure the personal reflection ability of medical students.
Explorative literature study was conducted to gather an initial pool of items. Item selection took place using qualitative and quantitative methods. Medical teachers screened the initial item-pool on relevance, expert-analysis was used for screening the fidelity to the criterion and large samples of medical students and medical teachers were used to investigate the psychometric characteristics of the items. Finally, explorative factor analysis was used to investigate the structure of the scale.
The psychometric quality and content validity of the GRAS are satisfactory. The items cover three aspects of personal reflection: self-reflection, empathetic reflection and reflective communication. The 23-item scale proved to be easy to complete and to administer.
The GRAS is a practical measurement instrument that yields reliable data that contribute to valid inferences about the personal reflection ability of medical students and doctors, both at individual and group level.
"This assesses the perception, appraisal and expression of emotion, emotional facilitation of thinking, understanding, analysis and employment of emotional knowledge, and the regulation of emotion. Reflective ability was assessed by a 23-item scale developed by Aukes et al. (2007), encompassing self-reflection, empathetic reflection and reflective communication. Empathy was measured using a 21-item scale adapted from a measure developed by Davis (1983). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The need for social workers to be resilient is widely emphasised. Although enhancing resilience in social work trainees presents a challenge to educators, they are nonetheless responsible for developing professionals who are able to cope with the emotional demands of the job. This paper argues that building resilience in the future workforce should be a key element of social work education. However, as little is known about the competencies and support structures that underpin resilience or the extent to which resilience protects the wellbeing of trainees, an evidence-based approach is required to inform curriculum development.Recent research conducted by the authors of this paper has highlighted the protective nature of resilience in social work trainees. Emotional intelligence and associated competencies, such as reflective ability, aspects of empathy and social confidence, were found to be key predictors of this important quality. The important role played by social support from various sources was also emphasised. The present paper summarises this research, and presents interventions based on the findings that have the potential to promote resilience and wellbeing in social work trainees. Also considered are ways in which the curriculum might be further enhanced to provide trainees with an internal ‘tool-box’ of strategies that will help them manage their wellbeing more effectively in their future career.
Social Work Education 08/2012; 31(5-5):605-621. DOI:10.1080/02615479.2011.590931
"Reflection ranged from a single perspective to a balanced approach considering multiple relevant perspectives. Aukes et al  emphasised emotional and communication components when they conceptualised personal reflection as a combination of self-reflection, empathic reflection, and reflective communication. Sobral's  emphasis on reflection-in-learning approached reflection from a learning perspective. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reflection on experience is an increasingly critical part of professional development and lifelong learning. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about how best to put principle into practice, particularly as regards assessment. This article explores those uncertainties in order to find practical ways of assessing reflection.
We critically review four problems: 1. Inconsistent definitions of reflection; 2. Lack of standards to determine (in)adequate reflection; 3. Factors that complicate assessment; 4. Internal and external contextual factors affecting the assessment of reflection.
To address the problem of inconsistency, we identified processes that were common to a number of widely quoted theories and synthesised a model, which yielded six indicators that could be used in assessment instruments. We arrived at the conclusion that, until further progress has been made in defining standards, assessment must depend on developing and communicating local consensus between stakeholders (students, practitioners, teachers, supervisors, curriculum developers) about what is expected in exercises and formal tests. Major factors that complicate assessment are the subjective nature of reflection's content and the dependency on descriptions by persons being assessed about their reflection process, without any objective means of verification. To counter these validity threats, we suggest that assessment should focus on generic process skills rather than the subjective content of reflection and where possible to consider objective information about the triggering situation to verify described reflections. Finally, internal and external contextual factors such as motivation, instruction, character of assessment (formative or summative) and the ability of individual learning environments to stimulate reflection should be considered.
BMC Medical Education 12/2011; 11(1):104. DOI:10.1186/1472-6920-11-104 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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