Article

Human herpesvirus-8 infection and oral shedding in Amerindian and non-Amerindian populations in the Brazilian Amazon region.

Laboratory of Virology, São Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine and Department of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.85). 09/2007; 196(6):844-52. DOI: 10.1086/520549
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown.
Antibodies against either HHV-8 lytic antigen or HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were detected, by immunofluorescence assays, in 339 Amerindians and 181 non-Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon. Serological markers of oro-fecal (hepatitis A), parenteral (hepatitis B and C), and sexual (herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis) transmission were measured by specific ELISAs. Salivary HHV-8 DNA was detected by use of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and was sequenced.
Antibodies against either lytic antigen or LANA were detected in 79.1% of Amerindians and in 6.1% of non-Amerindians (adjusted seroprevalence ratio [SR], 12.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1-22.4]; P<.0001). HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (P(Trend) < .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. The 2 populations did not differ in seroprevalence of oro-fecal or parenteral markers, but seroprevalence of markers of sexual transmission was lower among Amerindians. HHV-8 DNA in saliva was detected in 47 (23.7%) of 198 HHV-8 seropositive Amerindians. Detection of HHV-8 DNA decreased with age (P(Trend) < .04) and was more common in men (SR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.3-3.5]; P=.003). A total of 36 (76.6%) of the 47 saliva HHV-8 DNA samples were sequenced, and all clustered as subtype E.
The data support the hypothesis of early acquisition and horizontal transmission, via saliva, of HHV-8 subtype E in Amerindian populations.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
51 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Factors previously associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) transmission in Africa include sexual, familial, and proximity to river water. We measured the seroprevalence of KSHV in relation to HIV, syphilis, and demographic factors among pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in the Gauteng province of South Africa. We tested for antibodies to KSHV lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73 antigens in 1740 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics who contributed blood to the "National HIV and Syphilis Sero-Prevalence Survey - South Africa, 2001". Information on HIV and syphilis serology, age, education, residential area, gravidity, and parity was anonymously linked to evaluate risk factors for KSHV seropositivity. Clinics were grouped by municipality regions and their proximity to the two main river catchments defined. KSHV seropositivity (reactive to either lytic K8.1 and latent Orf73) was nearly twice that of HIV (44.6% vs. 23.1%). HIV and syphilis seropositivity was 12.7% and 14.9% in women without KSHV, and 36.1% and 19.9% respectively in those with KSHV. Women who are KSHV seropositive were 4 times more likely to be HIV positive than those who were KSHV seronegative (AOR 4.1 95%CI: 3.4 - 5.7). Although, women with HIV infection were more likely to be syphilis seropositive (AOR 1.8 95%CI: 1.3 - 2.4), no association between KSHV and syphilis seropositivity was observed. Those with higher levels of education had lower levels of KSHV seropositivity compared to those with lower education levels. KSHV seropositivity showed a heterogeneous pattern of prevalence in some localities. The association between KSHV and HIV seropositivity and a lack of common association with syphilis, suggests that KSHV transmission may involve geographical and cultural factors other than sexual transmission.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2010; 5:14.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent associated with development of classical, AIDS-related, iatrogenic, and endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Several studies provide strong evidence that HHV-8 can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We evaluated the seroprevalence and potential risk factors of HHV-8 infection in blood donors in one region. We surveyed HHV-8 infection among 4461 blood donors in Xinjiang, China, a unique endemic area for HHV-8 and KS. The HHV-8 seroprevalence was higher in local minority groups which comprise most KS cases in China, than in Han people. HHV-8 prevalence was 18.6% in the Han ethnic group, 25.9% in Uygur subjects, 29.2% in Kazak subjects, 36.8% in Mongolian subjects, and 21.9% in other ethnic groups. In several subgroups, the time of donation of whole blood seemed to be a risk factor. In HHV-8-seropositive subjects, a larger fraction of local minorities (23.9%) had high HHV-8 titers than that of Han subjects (9.2%). HHV-8 infection was associated with ethnicity and residence. HHV-8 seroprevalence was significantly high among blood donors in Xinjiang, where the prevalence of KS correlates with HHV-8 prevalence and titers in Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups. Blood exposure represented by the frequency of blood donation indicated a possible blood-borne transmission route of HHV-8 in Xinjiang. Detecting anti-HHV-8 antibodies before donation in this region is therefore important.
    Virology Journal 03/2010; 7:62. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999). 05/2014;