The aim of this study was to examine the risk of pancreatitis in patients with celiac disease (CD) from a general population cohort.
By using Swedish national registers, we identified 14,239 individuals with a diagnosis of CD (1964-2003) and 69,381 reference individuals matched for age, sex, calendar year, and county of residence at the time of diagnosis. Cox regression estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for a subsequent diagnosis of pancreatitis. We restricted analyses to individuals with more than 1 year of follow-up and no diagnosis of pancreatitis before or within 1 year after study entry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the association of pancreatitis with subsequent CD.
CD was associated with an increased risk of subsequent pancreatitis of any type (HR, 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.6-4.4; P < .001; on the basis of 95 positive events in individuals with CD vs 163 positive events in reference individuals) and chronic pancreatitis (HR, 19.8; 95% CI, 9.2-42.8; P < .001; on the basis of 37 and 13 positive events, respectively). Adjustment for socioeconomic index, diabetes mellitus, alcohol-related disorders, or gallstone disease had no notable effect on the risk estimates. The risk increase for pancreatitis was only found among individuals with CD diagnosed in adulthood. Pancreatitis of any type (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.5-4.3; P < .001) and chronic pancreatitis (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% CI, 4.0-13.5; P < .001) were associated with subsequent CD.
This study suggests that individuals with CD are at increased risk of pancreatitis.
"The mechanisms that may be involved in the relationship between pancreatic disease and CD including impaired secretion of pancreatitis stimulating hormones from the diseased small bowel, alterations in enteric endocrine cells, reduction in precursors for pancreatic enzyme synthesis, structural changes in the pancreas with atrophy of acinar cells and fibrosis of the gland resulting in impaired pancreatic exocrine function, papillary stenosis and shared immunologic traits in both diseases [215, 219]. By contrast, the relationship between autoimmune pancreatitis and CD has not been demonstrated, since there is only so far a case report of this association . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While gluten-free diet is an effective treatment for coeliac disease, the need for and goals of long-term management of patients are poorly defined.
To review systematically the complications and associations of coeliac disease, to identify potential risk factors, to define ways of assessing risk factors and to provide a strategy for management.
Review of medical literature from 1975.
There is an increasing list of potential complications and/or conditions associated with coeliac disease, in particular, autoimmune disease, malignancy and bone disease. Risk factors that may predict or influence long-term outcomes include genetic susceptibility, environmental factors predominantly gluten ingestion, persistent small intestinal inflammation/injury and nutritional deficiencies. Genotyping of patients is yet to have an established clinical role in long-term management. Assessment of adherence to the gluten-free diet largely relies upon skilled dietary history, but the ultimate test is duodenal histopathology, which is the only currently established means of assessing healing. Symptoms, serology or other non-invasive means are poor predictors of healing and the likelihood of complications.
Evidence (albeit limited) that adherence to a gluten-free diet and mucosal healing prevent and/or ameliorate complications indicates that a planned long-term strategy for follow-up is essential.
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