Interleukin-12 and tuberculosis: an old story revisited.
ABSTRACT Our understanding of the role of interleukin (IL)-12 in controlling tuberculosis has expanded because of increased interest in other members of the IL-12 family of cytokines. Recent data show that IL-12, IL-23 and IL-27 have specific roles in the initiation, expansion and control of the cellular response to tuberculosis. Specifically, IL-12, and to a lesser degree IL-23, generates protective cellular responses and promotes survival, whereas IL-27 moderates the inflammatory response and is required for long-term survival. Paradoxically, IL-27 also limits bacterial control, suggesting that a balance between bacterial killing and tissue damage is required for survival. Understanding the balance between IL-12, IL-23 and IL-27 is crucial to the development of immune intervention in tuberculosis.
Article: DNA vaccine using hemagglutinating virus of Japan-liposome encapsulating combination encoding mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 and interleukin-12 confers protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by T cell activation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of DNA vaccine combinations expressing mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) using gene gun bombardment and the hemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ)-liposome method. A mouse IL-12 expression vector (mIL-12 DNA) encoding single-chain IL-12 proteins comprised of p40 and p35 subunits were constructed. In a mouse model, a single gene gun vaccination with the combination of Hsp65 DNA and mIL-12 DNA provided a remarkably high degree of protection against challenge with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis; bacterial numbers were 100-fold lower in the lungs compared to BCG-vaccinated mice. To explore the clinical use of the DNA vaccines, we evaluated HVJ-liposome encapsulated Hsp65 DNA and mIL-12DNA (Hsp65 + mIL-12/HVJ). The HVJ-liposome method improved the protective efficacy of the Hsp65 DNA vaccine compared to gene gun vaccination. Hsp65 + mIL-12/HVJ induced CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against Hsp65 antigen. Most importantly, Hsp65+mIL-12/HVJ vaccination resulted in a greater degree of protection than that evoked by BCG. This protective efficacy was associated with the emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting T cells and activation of proliferative T cells and cytokines (IFN-gamma and IL-2) production upon stimulation with Hsp65 and antigens from M. tuberculosis. These results suggest that Hsp65 + IL-12/HVJ could be a promising candidate for a new tuberculosis DNA vaccine, which is superior to BCG vaccine.Vaccine 03/2006; 24(8):1191-204. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mice were immunized with experimental subunit vaccines based on secreted antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a series of adjuvants, comprising incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA), dimethyl dioctadecyl ammoniumbromide (DDA), RIBI adjuvant, Quil-A saponin, and aluminum hydroxide. Immune responses induced by these vaccines were characterized by in vitro culture of primed cells, PCR analysis for cytokine mRNA, detection of specific immunoglobulin G isotypes induced, and monitoring of protective immunity to tuberculosis (TB). The study demonstrated marked differences in the immune responses induced by the different adjuvants and identified both IFA and DDA as efficient adjuvants for a TB subunit vaccine. Aluminum hydroxide, on the other hand, induced a Th2 response which increased the susceptibility of the animals to a subsequent TB challenge. DDA was further coadjuvanted with either the Th1-stimulating polymer poly(I-C) or the cytokines gamma interferon, interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-12. The addition of IL-12 was found to amplify a Th1 response in a dose-dependent manner and promoted a protective immune response against a virulent challenge. However, if the initial priming in the presence of IL-12 was followed by two booster injections of vaccine without IL-12, no improvement in long-term efficacy was found. This demonstrates the efficacy of DDA to promote an efficient immune response and suggests that IL-12 may accelerate this development, but not change the final outcome of a full vaccination regime.Infection and Immunity 03/1997; 65(2):623-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor