Non-traditional large neurons in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex.

Dipartimento di Anatomia Umana e Istologia, Policlinico, Università di Bari, Italy.
European journal of histochemistry: EJH (Impact Factor: 2.41). 02/2007; 51 Suppl 1:59-64.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The granular layer of the cerebellar cortex is composed of two groups of neurons, the granule neurons and the so-called large neurons. These latter include the neuron of Golgi and a number of other, lesser known neuron types, generically indicated as non-traditional large neurons. In the last few years, owing to the development of improved histological and histochemical techniques for studying morphological and chemical features of these neurons, some non-traditional large neurons have been morphologically well characterized, namely the neuron of Lugaro, the synarmotic neuron, the unipolar brush neuron, the candelabrum neuron and the perivascular neuron. Some types of non-traditional large neurons may be involved in the modulation of cortical intrinsic circuits, establishing connections among neurons distributed throughout the cortex, and acting as inhibitory interneurons (i.e., Lugaro and candelabrum neurons) or as excitatory ones (i.e., unipolar brush neuron). On the other hand, the synarmotic neuron could be involved in extrinsic circuits, projecting to deep cerebellar nuclei or to another cortex regions in the same or in a different folium. Finally, the perivascular neuron may intervene in the intrinsic regulation of the cortex microcirculation.

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