Non-traditional large neurons in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex.
ABSTRACT The granular layer of the cerebellar cortex is composed of two groups of neurons, the granule neurons and the so-called large neurons. These latter include the neuron of Golgi and a number of other, lesser known neuron types, generically indicated as non-traditional large neurons. In the last few years, owing to the development of improved histological and histochemical techniques for studying morphological and chemical features of these neurons, some non-traditional large neurons have been morphologically well characterized, namely the neuron of Lugaro, the synarmotic neuron, the unipolar brush neuron, the candelabrum neuron and the perivascular neuron. Some types of non-traditional large neurons may be involved in the modulation of cortical intrinsic circuits, establishing connections among neurons distributed throughout the cortex, and acting as inhibitory interneurons (i.e., Lugaro and candelabrum neurons) or as excitatory ones (i.e., unipolar brush neuron). On the other hand, the synarmotic neuron could be involved in extrinsic circuits, projecting to deep cerebellar nuclei or to another cortex regions in the same or in a different folium. Finally, the perivascular neuron may intervene in the intrinsic regulation of the cortex microcirculation.
Article: VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the rat cerebellar cortex.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of key SNARE proteins in glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the adult rat cerebellar cortex using light microscopy immunohistochemical techniques. Analysis was made of co-localizations of vGluT-1 and vGluT-2, vesicular transporters of glutamate and markers of glutamatergic synapses, or GAD, the GABA synthetic enzyme and marker of GABAergic synapses, with VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1. The examined SNARE proteins were found to be diffusely expressed in glutamatergic synapses, whereas they were rarely observed in GABAergic synapses. However, among glutamatergic synapses, subpopulations which did not contain VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 were detected. They included virtually all the synapses established by terminals of climbing fibres (immunoreactive for vGluT-2) and some synapses established by terminals of parallel and mossy fibres (immunoreactive for vGluT-1, and for vGluT-1 and 2, respectively). The only GABA synapses expressing the SNARE proteins studied were the synapses established by axon terminals of basket neurons. The present study supplies a detailed morphological description of VAMP-2, SNAP-25A/B and syntaxin-1 in the different types of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses of the rat cerebellar cortex. The examined SNARE proteins characterize most of glutamatergic synapses and only one type of GABAergic synapses. In the subpopulations of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses lacking the SNARE protein isoforms examined, alternative mechanisms for regulating trafficking of synaptic vesicles may be hypothesized, possibly mediated by different isoforms or homologous proteins.BMC Neuroscience 11/2011; 12:118. · 3.04 Impact Factor