The Medtronic Minimed Gold continuous glucose monitoring system: an effective means to discover hypo- and hyperglycemia in children under 7 years of age.
ABSTRACT The glycemic patterns of children less than 7 years with type 1 diabetes have not been well studied using continuous glucose monitoring. Our goal was to assess the incidence of hypoglycemia as well as postprandial glycemic patterns in this age group utilizing continuous glucose monitoring.
Nineteen children used the Medtronic MiniMed (Northridge, CA) CGMS System Gold on three to seven occasions over approximately 6 months.
Nineteen children (nine girls and 10 boys; mean age 4.8 +/- 1.4 years, range 1.6-6.8 years) used the CGMS 102 times, providing 434 days of data; 79% of days were optimal based on CGMS Solutions software version 3.0. Mild hypoglycemia (glucose <or=70 mg/dL) was noted during 28% of 323 nights. When compared to paired meter blood glucose values, the false-positive rate was 16% for mild and 55% for severe sensor hypoglycemia. The mean peak glucose during the 3 h following breakfast (247 +/- 64 mg/dL) was higher than following lunch (199 +/- 67 mg/dL) or dinner (194 +/- 63 mg/dL). The rate of glucose rise to peak was >or=2 mg/dL/min following 50% of breakfasts. Children with hemoglobin A1c levels >or=8% had higher postprandial glucose concentrations. There was no significant advantage of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy over multiple daily injection therapy in decreasing postprandial hyperglycemia.
CGMS tracings from young children with diabetes demonstrate frequent mild nocturnal hypoglycemia and significant postprandial hyperglycemia, with a rapid rise in glucose following the meal. The most rapid rate of rise and the most severe postprandial hyperglycemia occurred after breakfast.
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ABSTRACT: A panel of experts of the Italian Society of Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology comprehensively discussed and approved the Italian recommendations regarding self-monitoring of blood glucose, continuous glucose monitoring and other measures of glycemic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. After an extensive review of the literature, we took these issues into account: self-monitoring blood glucose, continuous glucose monitoring, glycemic variability, glycosuria, ketonuria, ketonemia, glycated hemoglobin, fructosamine and glycated albumin, logbook, data downloading, lancing devices, carbohydrate counting, and glycemic measurements at school. We concluded that clinical guidelines on self-management should be developed in every country with faithful adaptation to local languages and taking into account specific contexts and local peculiarities, without any substantial modifications to the international recommendations. We believe that the National Health Service should provide all necessary resources to ensure self-monitoring of blood glucose and possibly continuous glucose monitoring of all children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes, according to the standards of care provided by these recommendations and internationally.Acta Diabetologica 10/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last several decades, a proliferation of sophisticated technology has taken place to facilitate diabetes self-management and improve health outcomes. Blood glucose monitors, insulin pumps, and continuous glucose monitors have significant data storage capacity, which can be used to summarize diabetes health management and outcomes. In the absence of technology errors or failures, and in the context of the multiple psychosocial factors associated with nonadherence, these data have the potential to elucidate diabetes care because they reflect actual patient behaviors. This review provides a summary of the diabetes adherence literature in the context of current American Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Recommendations with a focus on studies that have used objective methods (ie, data derived from technology) to assess diabetes care provider and patient adherence in the areas of glucose monitoring; insulin administration and antihyperglycemic medications; medical nutrition therapy; and physical activity.Current Diabetes Reports 09/2014; 14(9):521. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine if very preterm (VPT) babies are capable of maintaining glucose levels within normal ranges at or near term postmenstrual age.Journal of Pediatrics 09/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor