Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism correlates with cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease.
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine. Through its effects on lipid metabolism and endothelial function, TNFalpha is involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have studied two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNFalpha gene (TNF -308G/A and TNF -238G/A) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with and without CVD. The aim was to assess the association of these polymorphisms with ESRD and cardiovascular comorbidity in hemodialyzed patients.
A total of 603 patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (382 patients with CVD) and 325 healthy control subjects were genotyped for the TNF -308G/A and TNF -238G/A ploymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure.
The A allele of the TNF -308 polymorphism was more frequent in the ESRD group than in control individuals. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk allele was 2.05 (95% CI 1.48, 2.84). In the subgroup of ESRD patients with CVD, the OR was 5.76 (95% CI 3.67, 9.03) relative to ESRD patients without CVD. There was no association observed between the TNF -238 polymorphism and renal failure or CVD in ESRD patients.
Our results demonstrate for the first time that the A allele of the TNF -308 polymorphism is associated with CVD in hemodialyzed ESRD patients. If confirmed in prospective studies, it may be a predictor of increased susceptibility to CVD in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and possibly plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between two IL-18 gene polymorphisms, namely C-607A and G-137C, and cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetic nephropathy was examined. Two hundred and twenty patients (91 male) with diabetic nephropathy were studied. The IL-18 promoter genotypes were determined. All patients were then prospectively followed for the cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality were also compared. Mean age was 64.3 +/- 10.6 years; average follow up was 73.9 +/- 33.6 months. The frequencies of CC, CA and AA genotypes of the C-607A polymorphism were 25.5%, 48.2% and 26.8%, respectively; GG, GC and CC genotypes of the G-137C polymorphism were 71.8%, 25.0% and 3.2%, respectively. Neither of the polymorphisms were associated with the development of primary cardiovascular end-point. Cardiovascular survival was 84.8% and 70.6% at 60 months for GG and GC/CC genotypes of the G-137C polymorphism, respectively (P = 0.027); the corresponding actuarial survival was 69.0% and 54.8%, respectively (P = 0.053). However, the G-137C genotype was not an independent predictor of cardiovascular or actuarial survival after adjusting for confounders by multivariate analysis with the Cox model. The C-607A polymorphism had no significant effect on cardiovascular or actuarial survival. The G-137C polymorphism of the IL-18 promoter is associated with the cardiovascular mortality, and a trend of association with all-cause mortality, in patients with diabetic nephropathy. The association, however, becomes insignificant after adjusting for confounding factors. Further studies are needed to test other genetic determinants of the association between systemic inflammation and cardiovascular disease in renal failure patients.Nephrology 10/2009; 14(6):606-12. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with acute kidney injury (AKI). Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) is cyto- and organ-protective. We hypothesized that pretreatment with inhaled CO prevents CPB-associated AKI. Pigs (n = 38) were nonrandomly assigned to SHAM, standard CPB, pretreatment with inhaled CO (250 ppm, 1 hour) before SHAM or CPB, to pretreatment with quercetin (an inhibitor of the heat shock response), and to pretreatment with SnPPIX (an inhibitor of endogenously derived CO), before CO inhalation and CPB. The primary outcome variables were markers of AKI (urea, uric acid, creatinine, cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha), which were determined 120 minutes after CPB. Secondary outcome variables were heat shock protein (HSP)-70 and heme oxygenase-1 protein expressions as indicators of CO-mediated heat shock response. Pretreatment with inhaled CO attenuated (all P < 0.001) CPB-associated, (1) increases in serum concentrations of cystatin C (64 +/- 14 vs 28 +/- 9 ng/mL), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (391 +/- 65 vs 183 +/- 56 ng/mL), renal tumor necrosis factor-alpha (450 +/- 73 vs 179 +/- 110 pg/mL), and interleukin-6 (483 +/- 102 vs 125 +/- 67 pg/mL); (2) increase in renal caspase-3 activity (550 +/- 66 vs 259 +/- 52 relative fluorescent units); and (3) histological evidence of AKI. These effects were accompanied by activation of HSP-70 (196 +/- 64 vs 554 +/- 149 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Pretreatment with the heat shock response inhibitor quercetin counteracted the CO-associated biochemical and histological renoprotective effects (all P < 0.001), whereas the heme oxygenase inhibitor SnPPIX only partially counteracted the CO-associated renoprotection and the activation of the heat shock response. CO treatment before CPB was associated with evidence of renoprotection, demonstrated by fewer histological injuries and decreased cystatin C concentrations. The findings that the antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects of CO were accompanied by activation of HSP-70, which in turn were reversed by quercetin, suggest that renoprotection by pretreatment with inhaled CO before CPB is mediated by activation of the renal heat shock response.Anesthesia and analgesia 07/2010; 111(1):29-37. · 3.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cytokine gene polymorphisms have been implicated as potential genetic risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) are surrogate markers for CVDs in uremic patients. The aim of this study was to assess the role of cytokine gene polymorphisms in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) progression in nondiabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients. About 102 nondiabetic patients on maintenance HD were included in this study. Patients were followed up for 2 years. Genetic polymorphisms of TNF-alpha (-308 G/A, -238A/G) and IL-10 (-1082 A/G, -819 C/T, -592 A/C) were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Biochemical parameters and inflammatory markers and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements were determined during the study period. CIMT and LVMI were also determined at baseline and after the first and second year. Cardiovascular risk factors did not differ between TNF-alpha -308 high-/low-producer genotype groups. However, CIMT and LVMI progression were detected at higher levels in patients with high-producer genotypes (AA+AG) than in patients with the low-producer genotype (GG) during the study period. The TNF-alpha -308 G/A polymorphism was closely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation in the study population. Analysis also showed that the combination of high production of TNF-alpha and low production of IL-10 was associated with higher average IMT and LVMI progression and elevated average CRP levels compared with a combination of low production of TNF-alpha and high production of IL-10. Polymorphisms in inflammatory genes may represent an additional factor affecting inflammation and CVD progression in nondiabetic HD patients.Renal Failure 01/2010; 32(7):806-16. · 0.94 Impact Factor