Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism correlates with cardiovascular disease in patients with end-stage renal disease.
ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine. Through its effects on lipid metabolism and endothelial function, TNFalpha is involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). We have studied two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the TNFalpha gene (TNF -308G/A and TNF -238G/A) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with and without CVD. The aim was to assess the association of these polymorphisms with ESRD and cardiovascular comorbidity in hemodialyzed patients.
A total of 603 patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (382 patients with CVD) and 325 healthy control subjects were genotyped for the TNF -308G/A and TNF -238G/A ploymorphisms by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) procedure.
The A allele of the TNF -308 polymorphism was more frequent in the ESRD group than in control individuals. The odds ratio (OR) for the risk allele was 2.05 (95% CI 1.48, 2.84). In the subgroup of ESRD patients with CVD, the OR was 5.76 (95% CI 3.67, 9.03) relative to ESRD patients without CVD. There was no association observed between the TNF -238 polymorphism and renal failure or CVD in ESRD patients.
Our results demonstrate for the first time that the A allele of the TNF -308 polymorphism is associated with CVD in hemodialyzed ESRD patients. If confirmed in prospective studies, it may be a predictor of increased susceptibility to CVD in these patients.
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ABSTRACT: Hypertension, poor glycemic control and albuminuria are well known risk factors for diabetic nephropathy, but these factors do not explain all of the inter-individual variabilities in the rate of progression to kidney failure. Recent evidence showed that genetic predisposition affected the hyperglycemia-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). We reviewed the present state of knowledge concerning the relationship between genetics and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 DM. However, the results are inconclusive and the genetic determinants of diabetic nephropathy are not fully understood. In addition, genetic background of nephropathy in type 2 DM was thought to be more complex than in type 1 DM. Recent studies suggested that the inflammation would be an essential component of type 2 DM and its complications. We postulated that increased systemic and/or intrarenal inflammation in high glucose milieu is important in the pathogenesis of nephropathy in patients with type 2 DM. To investigate the impact of inflammation on diabetic nephropathy, we studied several polymorphisms in genes encoding inflammatory cytokine and chemokine in patients with type 2 DM. Among them, -511 C/T in interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tandem repeat in IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), -308 G/A in tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were significantly associated with an increased risk of kidney failure. In addition, some of them were remarkably different from those previously reported in the NCBI or literature based on the western population. Our results suggest that inflammation could play a pathogenic role in diabetic nephropathy in type 2 DM. A better understanding of genetic factors predisposing to diabetic nephropathy would not only help to identify diabetic patients at risk, but also be helpful to unveil the pathogenesis of DN.Nephrology 11/2005; 10 Suppl:S32-6. · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the major cause of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients treated by hemodialysis (HD). Although traditional risk factors are common in dialysis patients, they may not alone be sufficient to account for the unacceptable high prevalence of CVD in this patient group. Recent evidence demonstrates that chronic inflammation, a nontraditional risk factor that is commonly observed in HD patients, may cause malnutrition and progressive atherosclerotic CVD by several pathogenetic mechanisms. The cause(s) of inflammation in HD patients is multifactorial and includes both dialysis-related (such as graft and fistula infections, bioincompatibility, impure dialysate, and back-filtration) and dialysis-unrelated factors. Although inflammation may reflect underlying CVD, an acute-phase reaction may also be a direct cause of vascular injury. Available data suggest that proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the genesis of both malnutrition and CVD in ESRD. Thus, it could be speculated that suppression of the vicious cycle of malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis (MIA syndrome) would improve survival in dialysis patients. As there is not yet any recognized, or even proposed, targeted treatment for ESRD patients with chronic inflammation; it would be of considerable interest to study the long-term effect of various anti-inflammatory treatment strategies on nutritional and cardiovascular status as well as outcome in these patients.Hemodialysis International 05/2004; 8(2):118-29. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The G-308A polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene has been reported to be associated with insulin resistance and obesity, both of which may increase the risk of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesized that this polymorphism might interact with obesity to affect development of diabetic nephropathy. A consecutive cohort of 1281 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients was enrolled for analysis. Genotyping of TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism was performed using a PCR-based RFLP method with NcoI digestion. The mean value of the albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) of a random spot urine sample and a timed urinary collection was used to determine albuminuric status. Diabetic nephropathy was defined as serum creatinine > or =150 micromol/L and/or mean ACR > or =25 mg/mmol. Obesity was defined as body mass index > or =25 kg/m2 using Asian criteria. The G-308A polymorphism was not associated with either obesity or nephropathy. Clinical characteristics were similar between GG and GA/AA genotype carriers. Amongst the obese patients, GG genotype carriers had a higher median (interquartile range) urinary ACR [3.16 (0.70, 59.10) vs 1.28 (0.48, 12.28) mg/mmol; p = 0.01] and albumin excretion rate [38.7 (12.1, 620.3) vs 21.4 (8.9, 224.0) microg/min, p = 0.03] than GA/AA carriers. On multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with non-obese GA/AA carriers, obese subjects with the GG genotype had a 2.5-fold increased risk (95% CI: 1.04-6.03; P = 0.04) of nephropathy after adjustment for confounding factors. Other independent factors for diabetic nephropathy included male sex, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (logarithmically transformed value), and the presence of cardiovascular and microvascular complications. Our findings suggest that the GG genotype of TNF-alpha G-308A polymorphism or a genetic variant in close linkage disequilibrium may interact with obesity to increase the risk of nephropathy in Chinese Type 2 diabetic patients. Apart from the need for replication of these results, functional studies are required to clarify its significance.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 01/2006; 20(12):2733-8. · 3.37 Impact Factor