Character and temperament in major depressive disorder and a highly anxious-retarded subtype derived from melancholia.
ABSTRACT An anxious-retarded subtype of major depressive disorder, defined by high scores for both anxiety and retardation, has been derived from melancholia and appeared to have higher external validity in terms of poor outcome and vasopressinergic stress hormone regulation. A specific personality could enhance the validity of this subtype, and the association with melancholia suggested the absence of a personality disorder. As 2 character dimensions of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness, parsimoniously predict the presence of a personality disorder, the primary aim was to test whether patients with the highly anxious-retarded subtype of depression have both normal SD and normal cooperativeness. A secondary aim was to optimally account for the general personality characteristics of patients with a major depressive disorder.
Eighty-six patients with major depressive disorder and matched healthy controls were selected. Seventy patients were eventually recruited for a 2-year follow-up encompassing 5 assessments of personality (TCI) and psychopathology (Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale). Full remission of depression was defined by the presence of less than 3 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition items of depression during 2 weeks.
State-dependent changes of SD and harm avoidance (HA) scores were found in all depressed patients. Fully remitted patients had only high HA compared with healthy controls. Unexpectedly, fully remitted patients with the highly anxious-retarded subtype, in addition, had low SD.
The temperament of high HA may be the predisposing TCI trait for major depressive disorder in general. Low SD may be a specific presumably premorbid character trait for the highly anxious-retarded subtype derived from melancholia.
Article: Personality and depression: evidence of a possible mediating role for anger trait in the relationship between cooperativeness and depression.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: An increasingly growing area of empirical research has found consistent links between anger, depression, and temperament and character domains of personality, separately. However, precise nature of these relationships remains still unclear, and little is known about its underlying processes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our explorative research was to conduct a more detailed investigation into the relationships among depression, anger trait, and personality characteristics based on Cloninger's 7-factor personality theory in healthy individuals. METHOD: In this preliminary study, 230 Italian undergraduates were investigated by using the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Depression and cooperativeness were expected to have a negative and significant relationship and separate relationships with the trait-anger. Theoretically, a new hypothesis was that the trait-anger would mediate the relationship between depression and cooperativeness. RESULTS: Zero-order and partial correlations and a path analysis based on Baron and Kenny's method (J Pers Soc Psychol.1986;51:1173-1182) for calculating multiple regression analyses were calculated. Consistent with the hypotheses, cooperativeness and depression were strongly associated; the trait-anger was significantly associated with both cooperativeness and depression, and the mediation model fit the data. CONCLUSIONS: Behaviors related to the trait-anger could help to explain how depression and reduced cooperativeness are related each other.Comprehensive psychiatry 07/2012; · 2.08 Impact Factor
Article: Personality Profiles Identify Depressive Symptoms over Ten Years? A Population-Based Study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relationship between temperament and character inventory (TCI) profiles and depressive symptoms. Personality profiles are useful, because personality traits may have different effects on depressive symptoms when combined with different combinations of other traits. Participants were from the population-based Young Finns study with repeated measurements in 1997, 2001, and 2007 (n = 1402 to 1902). TCI was administered in 1997 and mild depressive symptoms (modified Beck's depression inventory, BDI) were reported in 1997, 2001, and 2007. BDI-II was also administered in 2007. We found that high harm avoidance and low self-directedness related strongly to depressive symptoms. In addition, sensitive (NHR) and fanatical people (ScT) were especially vulnerable to depressive symptoms. high novelty seeking and reward dependence increased depressive symptoms when harm avoidance was high. These associations were very similar in cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis. Personality profiles help in understanding the complex associations between depressive symptoms and personality.Depression research and treatment 01/2011; 2011:431314.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate comorbidity for MD in a large ED sample and both personality and anger as clinical characteristics of patients with ED and MD. We assessed 838 ED patients with psychiatric evaluations and psychometric questionnaires: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. 19.5% of ED patients were found to suffer from comorbid MD and 48.7% reported clinically significant depressive symptomatology: patients with Anorexia Binge-Purging and Bulimia Nervosa were more likely to be diagnosed with MD. Irritable mood was found in the 73% of patients with MD. High Harm Avoidance (HA) and low Self-Directedness (SD) predicted MD independently of severity of the ED symptomatology, several clinical variables, and ED diagnosis. Assessing both personality and depressive symptoms could be useful to provide effective treatments. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate the pathogenetic role of HA and SD for ED and MD.Depression research and treatment 01/2011; 2011:194732.