The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)beta/zeta is expressed in different subtypes of human breast cancer.

The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (Impact Factor: 2.41). 11/2007; 362(1):5-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.06.050
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests mutations in human breast cancer cells that induce inappropriate expression of the 18-kDa cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN, Ptn) initiate progression of breast cancers to a more malignant phenotype. Pleiotrophin signals through inactivating its receptor, the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)beta/zeta, leading to increased tyrosine phosphorylation of different substrate proteins of RPTPbeta/zeta, including beta-catenin, beta-adducin, Fyn, GIT1/Cat-1, and P190RhoGAP. PTN signaling thus has wide impact on different important cellular systems. Recently, PTN was found to activate anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) through the PTN/RPTPbeta/zeta signaling pathway; this discovery potentially is very important, since constitutive ALK activity of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein is causative of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, and, activated ALK is found in other malignant cancers. Recently ALK was identified in each of 63 human breast cancers from 22 subjects. We now demonstrate that RPTPbeta/zeta is expressed in each of these same 63 human breast cancers that previously were found to express ALK and in 10 additional samples of human breast cancer. RPTPbeta/zeta furthermore was localized not only in its normal association with the cell membrane but also scattered in cytoplasm and in nuclei in different breast cancer cells and, in the case of infiltrating ductal carcinomas, the distribution of RPTPbeta/zeta changes as the breast cancer become more malignant. The data suggest that the PTN/RPTPbeta/zeta signaling pathway may be constitutively activated and potentially function to constitutively activate ALK in human breast cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Expression of the heparin-binding growth factor, pleiotrophin (PTN) in the mammary gland has been reported but its function during mammary gland development is not known. We examined the expression of PTN and its receptor ALK (Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase) at various stages of mouse mammary gland development and found that their expression in epithelial cells is regulated in parallel during pregnancy. A 30-fold downregulation of PTN mRNA expression was observed during mid-pregnancy when the mammary gland undergoes lobular-alveolar differentiation. After weaning of pups, PTN expression was restored although baseline expression of PTN was reduced significantly in mammary glands of mice that had undergone multiple pregnancies. We found PTN expressed in epithelial cells of the mammary gland and thus used a monoclonal anti-PTN blocking antibody to elucidate its function in cultured mammary epithelial cells (MECs) as well as during gland development. Real-time impedance monitoring of MECs growth, migration and invasion during anti-PTN blocking antibody treatment showed that MECs motility and invasion but not proliferation depend on the activity of endogenous PTN. Increased number of mammospheres with laminin deposition after anti-PTN blocking antibody treatment of MECs in 3D culture and expression of progenitor markers suggest that the endogenously expressed PTN inhibits the expansion and differentiation of epithelial progenitor cells by disrupting cell-matrix adhesion. In vivo, PTN activity was found to inhibit ductal outgrowth and branching via the inhibition of phospho ERK1/2 signaling in the mammary epithelial cells. We conclude that PTN delays the maturation of the mammary gland by maintaining mammary epithelial cells in a progenitor phenotype and by inhibiting their differentiation during mammary gland development.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e47876. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is linked to hyperactivation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), and recent studies have unveiled that selective tyrosine dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) of specific substrates, including PTKs, may activate or inactivate oncogenic pathways in human breast cancer cell growth-related processes. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involvement of PTPs in breast cancer, as major regulators of breast cancer therapy-targeted PTKs, such as HER1/EGFR, HER2/Neu, and Src. The functional interplay between PTKs and PTK-activating or -inactivating PTPs, and its implications in novel breast cancer therapies based on targeting of specific PTPs, are discussed.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 06/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article on p. e47876 in vol. 7.].
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2). · 3.73 Impact Factor

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