Current status of excision repair cross complementing-group 1 (ERCC1) in cancer.
ABSTRACT Cisplatin, carboplatin and oxaliplatin are some of the most widely used anti-cancer agents in solid tumours. The cytotoxicity of platinating agents is directly related to their ability to cause DNA intra-strand crosslinks that trigger a series of intracellular events that ultimately result in cell death. DNA intra-strand crosslinks are processed and repaired by the nucleotide excision repair pathway. It is now clear that nucleotide excision repair (NER) capacity may have a major impact on the emergence of resistance, normal tissue tolerance and patient outcomes. ERCC1 is a key player in NER. In this review, we provide an overview of mammalian NER and then focus on biochemical, structural and pre-clinical aspects of ERCC1. We then present current clinical evidence implicating ERCC1 as a predictive and prognostic marker in cancer. Early evidence also suggests that ERCC1 or the pathways involved in the regulation of ERCC1 expression may be attractive anti-cancer targets. Such agents are expected to potentiate the cytotoxicity of platinating agents and could have a major impact on cancer therapy.
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ABSTRACT: Background:Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) expression status has been identified as a candidate marker for predicting efficacy of oxaliplatin (OX) treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) in several trials. Also, an association between expression of mismatch repair (MMR) genes and favourable postoperative survival in stage II CRC receiving 5-FU chemotherapy has been identified. It is unknown if the expression of ERCC1 protein and MMR status are associated with survival of stage III colon cancer receiving OX-based chemotherapy.Methods:Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of the expression of MMR and ERCC1 was performed on tumour tissue of 255 patients with stage III colon cancer. In all, 95 patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy and 160 patients received OX-based chemotherapy. A predictive model for 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was constructed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, logistic and Cox regression.Results:Patients who were treated with OX-based therapy with positive ERCC1 tumours had lower 5-year DFS (54%) and OS (60%) than those with negative ERCC1 tumours (72% and 78%, respectively; DFS HR: 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19-3.31, P=0.009; OS HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.37-4.34, P=0.02). Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 status did not impact DFS or OS in fluorouracil group (DFS HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.63-2.14, P=0.62; OS HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.63-2.14, P=0.63), whereas MMR status had no impact on DFS or OS in either group.Conclusion:Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 status is highly predictive of which patients will benefit from the addition of OX to 5-FU for stage III colon cancer. Mismatch repair status had no predictive value in this setting.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 12 March 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.83 www.bjcancer.com.British Journal of Cancer 03/2013; 108(6). DOI:10.1038/bjc.2013.83 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (ERCC1) gene performs a critical incision step in DNA repair and is reported to be correlated with carcinogenesis and resistance to drug or ionizing radiation therapy. We reviewed the correlation between ERCC1 and bladder cancer. In carcinogenesis, several reports discussed the relation between ERCC1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and carcinogenesis in bladder cancer only in case-control studies. Regarding the relation between ERCC1 and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, in vitro and clinical studies indicate that ERCC1 might be related to resistance to radiation therapy rather than cisplatin therapy. It is controversial whether ERCC1 predicts prognosis of bladder cancer treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Tyrosine kinase receptors or endothelial-mesenchymal transition are reported to regulate the expression of ERCC1, and further study is needed to clarify the mechanism of ERCC1 expression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy in vitro and to discover novel therapies for advanced and metastatic bladder cancer.Advances in Urology 01/2012; 2012:812398. DOI:10.1155/2012/812398
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ABSTRACT: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery is the standard of care for patients with gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Previously, we validated the utility of the tumour regression grade (TRG) as a histopathological marker of tumour downstaging in patients receiving platinum-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this study we profiled key DNA repair and damage signalling factors and correlated them with clinicopathological outcomes, including TRG response. Formalin-fixed human gastro-oesophageal cancers were constructed into tissue microarrays (TMAs). The first set consisted of 142 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases not exposed to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and the second set consisted of 103 gastric/gastro-oesophageal cancer cases exposed to preoperative platinum-based chemotherapy. Expressions of ERCC1, XPF, FANCD2, APE1 and p53 were investigated using immunohistochemistry. In patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, favourable TRG response (TRG 1, 2 or 3) was associated with improvement in disease-specific survival (P=0.038). ERCC1 nuclear expression correlated with lack of histopathological response (TRG 4 or 5) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P=0.006) and was associated with poor disease-specific (P=0.020) and overall survival (P=0.040). We provide evidence that tumour regression and ERCC1 nuclear protein expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry are promising predictive markers in gastro-oesophageal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy.British Journal of Cancer 05/2010; 102(11):1600-7. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605686 · 4.82 Impact Factor