Three hundred and seventy-nine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against various human CD molecules supplied to the HLDA8 animal homologues section (including four isotype controls) were analysed for cross-reactivity with equine leukocytes. First, flow cytometric identification of positively reacting mAbs was performed in one laboratory. Thereafter, a second round of flow cytometric evaluation was performed, involving three laboratories participating in the study. The first test-round indicated 17 mAbs as potentially positive. After the second round of flow cytometric analysis, 14 mAbs remained (directed against CD2, CD11a, CD18, CD44, CD45, CD49d, CD91, CD163 and CD172) where cross-reactivity was anticipated based on similarities between the human and equine staining pattern. Additionally, there was 1 mAb with weak likely positive reactivity, 12 mAbs with positive staining, which likely do not reflect valuable data, 5 mAbs with clear alternate expression pattern from that expected from humans, 5 mAbs with a questionable staining pattern itself, i.e. that was variable between the three labs, 32 mAbs with weak-positive expression and alternate staining pattern, and 279 negative mAbs (including the four isotype controls) were detected. In 31 cases, more appropriate target cells, such as thymocytes or stem cells, were not available for the screening. The results underline the value of this "cross-reactivity" approach for equine immunology. However, as only a few mAbs against leukocyte surface antigens reacted positively (approximately 4% of the mAbs submitted), the analysis of further anti-human mAbs and directed efforts to develop species-specific anti-CD mAb are still required.
"Greater than 90% of the analyzed PBMC were CD172a+, indicating that they were monocytes/macrophages (data not shown). Although the anti-CD172a mAb also identifies equine granulocytes , the ficoll hypaque PBMC isolation protocol (which removes the majority of granulocytes) together with the lack of internal complexity in the labeled cells (data not shown), provided further evidence that they were monocytes/macrophages. Overall, these data confirmed the SCID phenotype and indicated that the establishment of T. equi infection in SCID1 and SCID2 did not involve B or T lymphocytes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Theileria equi has a biphasic life cycle in horses, with a period of intraleukocyte development followed by patent erythrocytic parasitemia that causes acute and sometimes fatal hemolytic disease. Unlike Theileria spp. that infect cattle (Theileria parva and Theileria annulata), the intraleukocyte stage (schizont) of Theileria equi does not cause uncontrolled host cell proliferation or other significant pathology. Nevertheless, schizont-infected leukocytes are of interest because of their potential to alter host cell function and because immune responses directed against this stage could halt infection and prevent disease. Based on cellular morphology, Theileria equi has been reported to infect lymphocytes in vivo and in vitro, but the specific phenotype of schizont-infected cells has yet to be defined. To resolve this knowledge gap in Theileria equi pathogenesis, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were infected in vitro and the phenotype of infected cells determined using flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. These experiments demonstrated that the host cell range of Theileria equi was broader than initially reported and included B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages. To determine if B and T lymphocytes were required to establish infection in vivo, horses affected with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), which lack functional B and T lymphocytes, were inoculated with Theileria equi sporozoites. SCID horses developed patent erythrocytic parasitemia, indicating that B and T lymphocytes are not necessary to complete the Theileria equi life cycle in vivo. These findings suggest that the factors mediating Theileria equi leukocyte invasion and intracytoplasmic differentiation are common to several leukocyte subsets and are less restricted than for Theileria annulata and Theileria parva. These data will greatly facilitate future investigation into the relationships between Theileria equi leukocyte tropism and pathogenesis, breed susceptibility, and strain virulence.
PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e76996. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0076996 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"According to Borjesson and Peroni (2011), the capacity to characterize equine MSCs is hampered by the limited availability of commercial antibodies and by variability in cross-reactions . Ibrahim et al. (2007) showed that of 379 human CD antibodies, only 14 (4%) showed cross-reactivity with equine leukocytes. Alternatively, De Schauwer et al. (2011) suggested the use of a panel of cell surface markers for equine MSCs. "
"In order to identify Mϕ in normal and injured tendons we selected CD172a, as this antigen has been used to successfully identify Mϕ in ovine  and equine  tissues. The unique plasticity in function of Mϕ can in part be attributed to different subsets/phenotypes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages (Mφ) orchestrate inflammatory and reparatory processes in injured connective tissues but their role during different phases of tendon healing is not known. We investigated the contribution of different Mφ subsets in an equine model of naturally occurring tendon injury. Post mortem tissues were harvested from normal (uninjured), sub-acute (3-6 weeks post injury) and chronically injured (>3 months post injury) superficial digital flexor tendons. To determine if inflammation was present in injured tendons, Mφ sub-populations were quantified based on surface antigen expression of CD172a (pan Mφ), CD14(high)CD206(low) (pro-inflammatory M1Mφ), and CD206(high) (anti-inflammatory M2Mφ) to assess potential polarised phenotypes. In addition, the Lipoxin A(4) receptor (FPR2/ALX) was used as marker for resolving inflammation. Normal tendons were negative for both Mφ and FPR2/ALX. In contrast, M1Mφ predominated in sub-acute injury, whereas a potential phenotype-switch to M2Mφ polarity was seen in chronic injury. Furthermore, FPR2/ALX expression by tenocytes was significantly upregulated in sub-acute but not chronic injury. Expression of the FPR2/ALX ligand Annexin A1 was also significantly increased in sub-acute and chronic injuries in contrast to low level expression in normal tendons. The combination of reduced FPR2/ALX expression and persistence of the M2Mφ phenotype in chronic injury suggests a potential mechanism for incomplete resolution of inflammation after tendon injury. To investigate the effect of pro-inflammatory mediators on lipoxin A(4) (LXA(4)) production and FPR2/ALX expression in vitro, normal tendon explants were stimulated with interleukin-1 beta and prostaglandin E(2). Stimulation with either mediator induced LXA(4) release and maximal upregulation of FPR2/ALX expression after 72 hours. Taken together, our data suggests that although tenocytes are capable of mounting a protective mechanism to counteract inflammatory stimuli, this appears to be of insufficient duration and magnitude in natural tendon injury, which may potentiate chronic inflammation and fibrotic repair, as indicated by the presence of M2Mφ.
PLoS ONE 02/2012; 7(2):e32333. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032333 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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