Intracerebral microvascular measurements during deep brain stimulation implantation using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 1.46). 02/2007; 85(6):279-86. DOI:10.1159/000107360
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate if laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) can be used in order to differentiate between gray and white matter and to what extent microvascular perfusion can be recorded in the deep brain structures during stereotactic neurosurgery. An optical probe constructed to fit in the Leksell Stereotactic System was used for measurements along the trajectory and in the targets (globus pallidus internus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, thalamus) during the implantation of deep brain stimulation leads (n = 22). The total backscattered light intensity (TLI) reflecting the grayness of the tissue, and the microvascular perfusion were captured at 128 sites. Heartbeat-synchronized pulsations were found at all perfusion recordings. In 6 sites the perfusion was more than 6 times higher than the closest neighbor indicating a possible small vessel structure. TLI was significantly higher (p < 0.005) and the perfusion significantly lower (p < 0.005) in positions identified as white matter in the respective MRI batch. The measurements imply that LDPM has the potential to be used as an intracerebral guidance tool.

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    ABSTRACT: Miniature optical sensors that can detect blood vessels in front of advancing instruments will significantly benefit many interventional procedures. Towards this end, we developed a thin and flexible coherence-gated Doppler (CGD) fiber probe (O.D. = 0.125 mm) that can be integrated with minimally-invasive tools to provide real-time audio feedback of blood flow at precise locations in front of the probe. Coherence-gated Doppler (CGD) is a hybrid technology with features of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) and Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). Because of its confocal optical design and coherence-gating capabilities, CGD provides higher spatial resolution than LDF. And compared to DOCT imaging systems, CGD is simpler and less costly to produce. In vivo studies of rat femoral vessels using CGD demonstrate its ability to distinguish between artery, vein and bulk movement of the surrounding soft tissue. Finally, by placing the CGD probe inside a 30-gauge needle and advancing it into the brain of an anesthetized sheep, we demonstrate that it is capable of detecting vessels in front of advancing probes during simulated stereotactic neurosurgical procedures. Using simultaneous ultrasound (US) monitoring from the surface of the brain we show that CGD can detect at-risk blood vessels up to 3 mm in front of the advancing probe. The improved spatial resolution afforded by coherence gating combined with the simplicity, minute size and robustness of the CGD probe suggest it may benefit many minimally invasive procedures and enable it to be embedded into a variety of surgical instruments.
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    ABSTRACT: Quantification of blood fraction (f(blood) ), blood oxygenation (S O 2), melanin, lipofuscin and oxidised and reduced Cytochrome aa 3 and c was done from diffuse reflectance spectra captured in cortex, white matter, globus pallidus internus (GPi) and subthalamus during stereotactic implantations of 29 deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes with the aim of investigating whether the chromophores can give physiological information about the targets for DBS. Double-sided Mann-Whitney U -tests showed more lipofuscin in GPi compared to white matter and subthalamus (p < 0.05). Compared to the other structures, f(blood) was significantly higher in cortex (p < 0.05) and S O 2 lower in GPi (p < 0.05). Median values and range for f(blood) were 1.0 [0.2-6.0]% in the cortex, 0.3 [0.1-8.2]% in white matter, 0.2 [0.1-0.8]% in the GPi and 0.2 [0.1-11.7]% in the subthalamus. Corresponding values for S O 2 was 20 [0-81]% in the cortex, 29 [0-78]% in white matter, 0 [0-0]% in the GPi and 0 [0-92]% in the subthalamus. In conclusion, the measurements indicate very low oxygenation and blood volume for DBS patients, especially in the GPi. It would be of great interest to investigate whether this is due to the disease, the normal situation or an artefact of doing invasive measurements. (© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).
    Journal of Biophotonics 08/2012; · 3.10 Impact Factor

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Karin Wårdell