HPA and Immune Axes in Stress: Involvement of the Serotonergic System
Pharmacology Department, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.NeuroImmunoModulation (Impact Factor: 1.88). 02/2006; 13(5-6):268-76. DOI: 10.1159/000104854
Chronic stress, by initiating changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, acts as a trigger for anxiety and depression. There is experimental and clinical evidence that the rise in the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines and glucocorticoids, which occurs in a chronically stressful situation and also in depression, contributes to the behavioural changes associated with depression. A defect in serotonergic function is associated with these hormonal and immune changes. Neurodegenerative changes in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and amygdalae are the frequent outcomes of the changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system. Such changes may provide evidence for the link between chronic depression and dementia in later life.
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- "At the cortical level, evidence suggests that yoga helps in pain reduction due to production of endorphin resulting from alternate stretch and relax procedures of physical postures done with awareness. At limbic level, yoga offers mastery over the emotional surges through controlled and need based physiological responses to stressfully demanding situations instead of uncontrolled overtones of (HPA axis) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis during chronic pain. Studies also point to reduction in sympathetic arousal following yoga based relaxation techniques. "
ABSTRACT: Background:Studies have shown that Integrated Yoga reduces pain, disability, anxiety and depression and increases spinal flexibility and quality-of-life in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients.Objective:The objective of this study was to compare the effect of two yoga practices namely laghu shankha prakshalana (LSP) kriya, a yogic colon cleansing technique and back pain specific asanas (Back pain special technique [BST]) on pain, disability, spinal flexibility and state anxiety in patients with CLBP.Materials and Methods:In this randomized control (self as control) study, 40 in-patients (25 were males, 15 were females) between 25 and 70 years (44.05 ± 13.27) with CLBP were randomly assigned to receive LSP or BST sessions. The measurements were taken immediately before and after each session of either of the practices (30 min) in the same participant. Randomization was used to decide the day of the session (3rd or 5th day after admission) to ensure random distribution of the hang over effect of the two practices. Statistical analysis was performed using the repeated measures analysis of variance.Results:Significant group * time interaction (P < 0.001) was observed in 11 point numerical rating scale, spinal flexibility (on Leighton type Goniometer) and (straight leg raise test in both legs), Oswestry Disability Index, State Anxiety (XI component of Spieldberger's state and trait anxiety inventory. There was significantly (P < 0.001, between groups) better reduction in LSP than BST group on all variables. No adverse effects were reported by any participant.Conclusion:Clearing the bowel by yoga based colon cleansing technique (LSP) is safe and offers immediate analgesic effect with reduced disability, anxiety and improved spinal flexibility in patients with CLBP.International Journal of Yoga 07/2014; 7(2):111-9. DOI:10.4103/0973-6131.133884
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- "However, when examining the relationship between the HPA axis and the immune system in physiological or pathophysiological states, the situation appears more complex. Glucocorticoids modulate the immune system through binding to receptors expressed by immune cells, which down-regulates transcription of pro-inflammatory genes and up-regulates production of anti-inflammatory cytokines (Barnes, 2006; Leonard, 2006). Glucocorticoids also regulate the circulating numbers, tissue distribution and activity profile of lymphocytes in a timedependent manner [comprehensively reviewed in Dhabhar (2009)]. "
ABSTRACT: It has long been established in traditional forms of medicine and in anecdotal knowledge that the health of the body and the mind are inextricably linked. Strong and continually developing evidence now suggests a link between disorders which involve Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA) dysregulation and the risk of developing psychiatric disease. For instance, adverse or excessive responses to stressful experiences are built into the diagnostic criteria for several psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. Interestingly, peripheral disorders such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are also associated with HPA changes. Furthermore, many other systemic disorders associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disease involve a significant inflammatory component. In fact, inflammatory and endocrine pathways seem to interact in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS) to potentiate states of psychiatric dysfunction. This review synthesizes clinical and animal data looking at interactions between peripheral and central factors, developing an understanding at the molecular and cellular level of how processes in the entire body can impact on mental state and psychiatric health.Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2013; 4:158. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00158 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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- "The main component of the endocrine stress response involves activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA), which triggers a neuroendocrine cascade which culminates with the synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids (mainly cortisol in humans and corticosterone in rats, mice and other species) . When physiological stress becomes chronic , it turns an adaptive response to a health problem, given that many systems are adversely affected by the prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids and catecholamines, causing memory problems, poor concentration, mood disturbances and immune system level changes  . "
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect.International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 07/2013; 6(6):444-451. · 1.28 Impact Factor
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