Phytosterol Pygeum africanum regulates prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is an important public health problem. It is an excellent candidate disease for chemoprevention because prostate cancer is typically slow growing and is usually diagnosed in elderly males. Pygeum africanum (Prunus africana or Rosaceae) is an African prune (plum) tree found in tropical Africa. An extract from the bark of Pygeum africanum has been used in Europe as a prevention and treatment of prostate disorders including benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). More recently in the USA, the phytotherapeutic preparations of Pygeum africanum and Saw palmetto have been marketed for prostate health including prostate cancer prevention and treatment.
The anti-cancer potential of Pygeum africanum has been tested both in vitro (PC-3 and LNCaP cells) and in vivo (TRAMP mouse model).
In tissue culture, ethanolic extracts (30%) of Pygeum africanum inhibited the growth of PC-3 and LNCaP cells; induced apoptosis and altered cell kinetics; down regulated ERalpha and PKC-alpha protein, and demonstrated good binding ability to both mouse uterine estrogen receptors and LNCaP human androgen receptors. TRAMP mice fed Pygeum africanum showed a significant reduction (P = 0.034) in prostate cancer incidence (35%) compared to casein fed mice (62.5%).
Pygeum africanum, which is widely used in Europe and USA for treatment of BPH, has a significant role in regulation of prostate cancer both in vitro and in vivo and therefore may be a useful supplement for people at high risk for developing prostate cancer.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ruth Macdonald, Jul 09, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Steryl ferulate (SF) is a bioactive mixture extracted from rice bran and shows higher inhibitory activity against inflammation than the corresponding free sterols. In this study, the aim was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and prostate gene expression profiling of SF using a Xiaozhiling-induced non-bacterial prostatitis (NBP) rat model. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by prostate weight, prostate index, acid phosphatase, density of lecithin corpuscles (DLC), white blood cell count (WBC), and prostatic histologic section. Prostate gene expression profiling was assessed by a cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative real-time PCR of five selected genes. Pathway analysis and Gene ontology (GO) analysis were applied to determine the roles of these differentially expressed genes involved in these biological pathways or GO terms. SF treatment could significantly inhibit prostate weight, prostate index, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase and WBC, suppress the severity of histological lesion and increase the DLC. Compared with the control group, the SF treatment group contained 238 up-regulated genes and 111 down-regulated genes. GO analysis demonstrated that the most significant expression genes were closely related to the terms of fibrinolysis, inflammatory response, high-density lipoprotein particle, protein-lipid complex, enzyme inhibitor activity, peptidase inhibitor activity and others. Canonical pathway analysis indicated five pathways were significantly regulated, which were associated with inflammation and tumorgenesis. In conclusion, SF may be used as a health supplement to prevent NBP, in that it could inhibit prostate inflammation in NBP patients by affecting the expression of genes in the related GO terms and pathways.03/2014; 5(6). DOI:10.1039/c4fo00052h
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ABSTRACT: Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 08/2013; 10(5):210-229. DOI:10.4314/ajtcam.v10i5.2 · 0.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In Qinghai Province, the Brassica campestris L. pollen preparation Qianlie Kang Pule’an Tablets (QKPT) is traditionally used for BPH therapy. However, in QKPT the content of supposedly active phytosterols is relatively low at 2.59%, necessitating high doses for successful therapy. Therefore, a phytosterol enriched (4.54%) refined extract of B. campestris pollen (PE) was developed and compared with QKPT in a BPH rat model. Six groups of rats (n = 8 each), namely sham operated distilled water control, castrated distilled water control, castrated QKPT 2.0 g/kg, castrated PE 0.1 g/kg, castrated PE 0.2 g/kg, and castrated PE 0.4 g/kg were intragastrically treated with the respective daily doses. Testosterone propionate (0.3 mg/day) was administered to all castrated rats, while the sham operated group received placebo injections. After 30 days, the animals were sacrificed and prostates as well as seminal vesicles excised and weighted in order to calculate prostate volume index (PVI) as well as prostate index (PI) and seminal vesicle index (SVI), defined as organ weight in g per 100 g body weight. Compared with sham-operated controls, PI (p < 0.01), PVI (p < 0.01), and SVI (p < 0.01) were all significantly increased in all castrated, testosterone treated rats. After treatment with PE at 0.4 and 0.2 g/kg or QKPT at 2.0 g/kg per day, both indices were significantly reduced (P < 0.01) as compared to the castrated distilled water control. For PE at 0.1 g/kg per day only PI was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). At the highest PE concentration of 0.4 g/kg per day both PI and SVI were also significantly reduced when compared to the QKPT group (p < 0.05). Both PE and QKPT demonstrated curative effects against BPH in the applied animal model. In its highest dose at 0.4 g/kg per day, PE was clearly superior to QKPT.Phytomedicine 01/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2014.10.001 · 2.88 Impact Factor