Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Volumes Are Cross-Sectionally Related to Markers of Inflammation and Oxidative Stress: The Framingham Heart Study

Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.43). 10/2007; 116(11):1234-41. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.710509
Source: PubMed


Excess adiposity is associated with greater systemic inflammation. Whether visceral adiposity is more proinflammatory than subcutaneous abdominal adiposity is unclear.
We examined the relations of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), assessed by multidetector computerized tomography, to circulating inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers in 1250 Framingham Heart Study participants (52% women; age 60+/-9 years). Biomarkers were examined in relation to increments of SAT and VAT after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, menopause, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol, and aspirin use; additional models included body mass index and waist circumference. SAT and VAT were positively and similarly (with respect to strength of association) related to C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-6, P-selectin, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (multivariable model R2 0.06 to 0.28 [SAT] and 0.07 to 0.29 [VAT]). However, compared with SAT, VAT was more highly associated with urinary isoprostanes and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (SAT versus VAT comparison: isoprostanes, R2 0.07 versus 0.10, P=0.002; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, R2 0.07 versus 0.08, P=0.04). When body mass index and waist circumference were added to the models, VAT remained significantly associated with only C-reactive protein (P=0.0003 for women; P=0.006 for men), interleukin-6 (P=0.01), isoprostanes (P=0.0002), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P=0.008); SAT only remained associated with fibrinogen (P=0.01).
The present cross-sectional data support an association between both SAT and VAT with inflammation and oxidative stress. The data suggest that the contribution of visceral fat to inflammation may not be completely accounted for by clinical measures of obesity (body mass index and waist circumference).

Download full-text


Available from: Pal Maurovich-Horvat, Oct 01, 2015
1 Follower
139 Reads
  • Source
    • "For example, in vitro studies have shown that variations in inflammation and phospholipid content are associated with changes in MTR (Kucharczyk et al., 1994; Stanisz et al., 2004). Obesity is associated with variations in both inflammation and phospholipid content, as assessed in blood (Kim et al., 2010; Pou et al., 2007). No previous studies have assessed adiposity and MTR, though previous work has shown negative associations between MTR and age, predominately in males (Perrin et al., 2009). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity, a major risk factor for cardiometabolic disease, is associated with variations in a number of structural properties in the adult brain, as assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we investigated the cross-sectional relationship between visceral fat (VF), total body fat (TBF) and three MRI parameters in the brains of typically developing adolescents: (i) T1-weighted (T1W) signal intensity; (ii) T1W signal contrast between white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM); and (iii) Magnetization Transfer Ratio (MTR). In a community-based sample of 970 adolescents (12-18 years old, 466 males), VF was quantified using MRI, and total body fat was measured using a multifrequency bioimpedance. T1W images of the brain were used to determine signal intensity in lobar GM and WM, as well as WM:GM signal contrast. A magnetization transfer (MT) sequence of MTON and MTOFF was used to obtain MTR in GM and WM. We found that both larger volumes of VF and more TBF were independently associated with higher signal intensity in WM and higher WM:GM signal contrast, as well as higher MTR in both GM and WM. These relationships were independent of a number of potential confounders, including age, sex, puberty stage, household income and height. Our results suggest that both visceral and fat deposited elsewhere in the body are independently associated with structural properties of the adolescent brain. We speculate that these relationships suggest the presence of adiposity-related variations in phospholipid composition of brain lipids.
    NeuroImage 09/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.09.030 · 6.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Body fat distribution is one of the major determinants of metabolic health, and visceral adiposity has a stronger correlation with metabolic abnormalities and cardiovascular disease than subcutaneous adipose tissue [27-29]. Visceral fat is metabolically active and is an important site for adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin, that can modulate inflammation and insulin resistance, and impart cardiovascular risk [30]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Obesity and physical inactivity are major public health problems. We studied the associations between measures of adiposity, lean body mass, leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and death in those with and without chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods Associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), percent body fat, lean body mass (assessed with Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry[DEXA]), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and death were examined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES 1999–2004). All-cause mortality was ascertained by linkage of NHANES files with the National Death Index. Results 9,433 non-CKD participants and 2,153 CKD participants who had fat mass measured using DEXA, BMI, WC, LTPA and mortality data were included. After adjusting for demographics, comorbid conditions, kidney function measures, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), and sodium intake there was no significant risk for death noted with higher WC, fat mass and BMI in those with and without CKD. When examining normal, overweight, and obese groups based on BMI criteria, being overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) was associated with lower risk of death in those without CKD (Hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.40, 0.95). Higher lean body mass was associated with lower risk for death in those without kidney disease but not in the CKD population. There was a significantly higher risk for death among those who did not meet the minimum LTPA goals compared to those who met or exceeded the recommended activity levels (>450 MET/min/week) in those with and without CKD (CKD Hazard ratio: 1.36, 95% CI 1.003, 1.85; non-CKD HR 1.65, 95% CI 1.21, 2.26). Conclusions In a representative sample of the US population, higher LTPA levels and lean body mass were associated with lower mortality in those without kidney disease. In CKD, higher LTPA was associated with lower risk of death. There was no association between adiposity measures and death in those with and without CKD except for lower mortality associated with overweight among those without CKD. The data suggests the need to develop programs to facilitate an increase in physical activity in people with and without kidney disease.
    BMC Nephrology 07/2014; 15(1):108. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-108 · 1.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Although such anthropometric measurements have good correlation with abdominal adiposity, they do not differentiate the visceral from subcutaneous adiposities. Moreover, the effects of the visceral adipose tissue cannot be completely explained by BMI and WC [11]. Interestingly, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has shown stronger association with the most metabolic risk factors when compared to subcutaneous abdominal tissue [12]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Information on the association between obesity and initial phases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is still limited, principally those regarding the influence of visceral adipose tissue. We investigated whether the visceral adipose tissue is more associated with reductions in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) than total and abdominal obesity in hypertensive individuals with stage 1-2 CKD. A cross-sectional study was implemented which involved 241 hypertensive patients undergoing treatment at a primary health care facility. GFR was estimated using equations based on creatinine and cystatin C levels. Explanatory variables included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (eVAT). The mean age was 59.6 +/- 9.2 years old and 75.9% were female. According to BMI, 28.2% of subjects were obese. Prevalence of increased WC and eVAT was 63.9% and 58.5%, respectively. Results from the assessment of GFR by BMI, WC, and eVAT categories showed that only women with increased eVAT (>/=150 cm(2)) had a lower mean GFR by Larsson (P = 0.016), Levey 2 (P = 0.005), and Levey 3 (P = 0.008) equations. The same result was not observed when the MDRD equation was employed. No association was found between BMI, WC, eVAT, and GFR using only serum creatinine. In the early stages of CKD, increased eVAT in hypertensive women was associated with decreased GFR based on cystatin C.
    International Journal of Nephrology 05/2014; 2014(14):574267. DOI:10.1155/2014/574267
Show more