Effects of gamma radiation on FcepsilonRI and TLR-mediated mast cell activation.
ABSTRACT Ionizing gamma radiation has several therapeutic indications including bone marrow transplantation and tumor ablation. Among immune cells, susceptibility of lymphocytes to gamma radiation is well known. However, there is little information on the effects of gamma radiation on mast cells, which are important in both innate and acquired immunity. Previous studies have suggested that mast cells may release histamine in response to high doses of gamma radiation, whereas other reports suggest that mast cells are relatively radioresistant. No strong link has been established between gamma radiation and its effect on mast cell survival and activation. We examined both human and murine mast cell survival and activation, including mechanisms related to innate and acquired immune responses following gamma radiation. Data revealed that human and murine mast cells were resistant to gamma radiation-induced cytotoxicity and, importantly, that irradiation did not directly induce beta-hexosaminidase release. Instead, a transient attenuation of IgE-mediated beta-hexosaminidase release and cytokine production was observed which appeared to be the result of reactive oxygen species formation after irradiation. Mast cells retained the ability to phagocytose Escherichia coli particles and respond to TLR ligands as measured by cytokine production after irradiation. In vivo, there was no decrease in mast cell numbers in skin of irradiated mice. Additionally, mast cells retained the ability to respond to Ag in vivo as measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice after irradiation. Mast cells are thus resistant to the cytotoxic effects and alterations in function after irradiation and, despite a transient inhibition, ultimately respond to innate and acquired immune activation signals.
- SourceAvailable from: Sharon Oldford
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- "This coupled with immunoadjuvants such as TLRs, other innate immune receptor activators or cytokines can augment anti-tumor immunity (reviewed in Ma et al., 2011). In contrast to other immune cells, mast cells are relatively radioresistant (Soule et al., 2007). Mast cells have a slow rate of cell division, which will likely also make them more resistant to several common classes of chemotherapeutic drugs than rapidly dividing immune cells. "
ABSTRACT: Mast cells have historically been studied mainly in the context of allergic disease. In recent years, we have come to understand the critical importance of mast cells in tissue remodeling events and their role as sentinel cells in the induction and development of effective immune responses to infection. Studies of the role of mast cells in tumor immunity are more limited. The pro-tumorigenic role of mast cells has been widely reported. However, mast cell infiltration predicts improved prognosis in some cancers, suggesting that their prognostic value may be dependent on other variables. Such factors may include the nature of local mast cell subsets and the various activation stimuli present within the tumor microenvironment. Experimental models have highlighted the importance of mast cells in orchestrating the anti-tumor events that follow immunotherapies that target innate immunity. Mast cells are long-lived tissue resident cells that are abundant around many solid tumors and are radiation resistant making them unique candidates for combined treatment modalities. This review will examine some of the key roles of mast cells in tumor immunity, with a focus on potential immunotherapeutic interventions that harness the sentinel role of mast cells.Molecular Immunology 03/2014; 63(1). DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2014.02.020 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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- "Optical density was measured at 405 nm using a GENios ELISA plate reader (ReTirSoft, Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Cytokines were measured in cell culture supernatants of BMMCs seeded at 2 × 10 5 cells/well and sensitized for 24 h with 100 ng/ml IgE anti-DNP (Sigma- Aldrich) . Following sensitization, 100 ng/ml DNP-HSA (Sigma-Aldrich) was added to BMMCs for a total of 8 h prior to supernatant collection for cytokine analysis. "
ABSTRACT: The Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) protein family plays a central role in the negative regulation of cytokine action and has been implicated in the development of atopic diseases. Lack of SOCS7 is associated with severe skin disease in mice. We sought to explore the underlying mechanisms resulting in this phenotype. Skin samples were analyzed and serum immunoglobulin production was measured. Cytokine production by bone marrow derived mast cells was determined by ELISA. Mast cell thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR. Data obtained revealed that Socs7(-/-) mice have increased serum IgE and IgG(1) production and exhibit an increased mast cell infiltrate, as well as un-provoked mast cell degranulation in the dermis as compared to controls. In vitro, bone marrow derived mast cells from Socs7(-/-) mice are hyperactive to IgE-mediated stimuli, with elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13, IL-6, TNF-alpha). Further, activated Socs7(-/-) bone marrow derived mast cells have increased IL-7Ralpha transcript, which is part of the heterodimeric receptor for TSLP. Finally, lack of SOCS7 was accompanied by an increase in TSLP mRNA and protein production by mast cells following FcepsilonRI aggregation. These data implicate SOCS7 in the modulation of allergic inflammation and demonstrate that SOCS7 is involved in the regulation of TSLP signaling in mast cells.Clinical Immunology 06/2009; 132(2):277-84. DOI:10.1016/j.clim.2009.04.003 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Leukotrienes (LTs) are lipid mediators of inflammation formed by enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid. One intriguing aspect of LT production is transcellular biosynthesis: cells expressing 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) form LTA(4) and transfer it to cells expressing LTA(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) or LTC(4) synthase (LTC(4)S) to produce LTB(4) or LTC(4). This process has been demonstrated in vivo for LTB(4), but not for cysteinyl LTs (cysLTs). We examined transcellular cysLT synthesis during zymosan-induced peritonitis, using bone marrow transplants with transgenic mice deficient in key enzymes of LT synthesis and analyzing all eicosanoids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. WT mice time-dependently produced LTB(4) and cysLTs (LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4)). 5LO(-/-) mice were incapable of producing LTs. WT bone marrow cells restored this biosynthetic ability, but 5LO(-/-) bone marrow did not rescue LT synthesis in irradiated WT mice, demonstrating that bone marrow-derived cells are the ultimate source of all LTs in this model. Total levels of 5LO-derived products were comparable in LTA(4)H(-/-) and WT mice, but were reduced in LTC(4)S(-/-) animals. No differences in prostaglandin production were observed between these transgenic or chimeric mice. Bone marrow cells from LTA(4)H(-/-) or LTC(4)S(-/-) mice injected into 5LO(-/-) mice restored the ability to synthesize LTB(4) and cysLTs, providing unequivocal evidence of efficient transcellular biosynthesis of cysLTs. These results highlight the potential relevance of transcellular exchange of LTA(4) for the synthesis of LTs mediating biological activities during inflammatory events in vivo.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2009; 106(20):8296-301. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0903851106 · 9.81 Impact Factor