Hereditary aceruloplasminemia is an adult-onset autosomal recessive disease characterized by increased iron overload in the liver, pancreas, retina, and central nervous system. So far, 45 families with cases of aceruloplasminemia have been reported world-wide and mainly missense and nonsense mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene were detected.
Here, we report the identification, clinical characterization, and in silico analysis of a novel compound heterozygosity in the ceruloplasmin gene of a 31-year-old man with iron overload.
Increased serum ferritin levels, elevated iron saturation, as well as results of iron quantification in the liver and magnetic resonance imaging-based measurement of T2 relaxation times of the substantia nigra consistently suggested iron overload. By sequencing the ceruloplasmin gene, so far unknown nucleotide replacements G229C, and C2131A were detected in exons 2 and 12, respectively. In silico analyses showed that the resulting amino acid changes Asp58His and Gln692Lys are located at highly conserved positions. The Asp58His mutation is located on the surface of the protein, alters polarity, and may interfere with copper incorporation or ceruloplasmin trafficking. The Gln692Lys mutation is mapped to a beta-strand of domain 4 and may lead to conformational change of the cupredoxin fold.
As causative for aceruloplasminemia, a formerly unknown compound heterozygosity in the ceruloplasmin gene was identified. In silico characterization suggests an impact on ceruloplasmin conformation and function.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Copper is a trace element present in all tissues and is required for cellular respiration, peptide amidation, neurotransmitter biosynthesis, pigment formation, and connective tissue strength. Copper is a cofactor for numerous enzymes and plays an important role in central nervous system development; low concentrations of copper may result in incomplete development, whereas excess copper maybe injurious. Copper may be involved in free radical production, via the Haber-Weiss reaction, that results in mitochondrial damage, DNA breakage, and neuronal injury. Evidence of abnormal copper transport and aberrant copper-protein interactions in numerous human neurological disorders supports the critical importance of this trace metal for proper neurodevelopment and neurological function. The biochemical phenotypes of human disorders that involve copper homeostasis suggest possible biomarkers of copper status that may be applicable to general populations.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2008; 88(3):855S-8S. · 6.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The multicopper oxidase ceruloplasmin plays a key role in iron homeostasis, and its ferroxidase activity is required to stabilize cell surface ferroportin, the only known mammalian iron exporter. Missense mutations causing the rare autosomal neurodegenerative disease aceruloplasminemia were investigated by testing their ability to prevent ferroportin degradation in rat glioma C6 cells silenced for endogenous ceruloplasmin. Most of the mutants did not complement (i.e. did not stabilize ferroportin) because of the irreversible loss of copper binding ability. Mutant R701W, which was found in a heterozygous very young patient with severe neurological problems, was unable to complement per se but did so in the presence of copper-glutathione or when the yeast copper ATPase Ccc2p was co-expressed, indicating that the protein was structurally able to bind copper but that metal loading involving the mammalian copper ATPase ATP7B was impaired. Notably, R701W exerted a dominant negative effect on wild type, and it induced the subcellular relocalization of ATP7B. Our results constitute the first evidence of "functional silencing" of ATP7B as a novel molecular defect in aceruloplasminemia. The possibility to reverse the deleterious effects of some aceruloplasminemia mutations may disclose new possible therapeutic strategies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Safe trafficking of iron across the cell membrane is a delicate process that requires specific protein carriers. While many proteins involved in iron uptake by cells are known, only one cellular iron export protein has been identified in mammals: ferroportin (SLC40A1). Ceruloplasmin is a multicopper enzyme endowed with ferroxidase activity that is found as a soluble isoform in plasma or as a membrane-associated isoform in specific cell types. According to the currently accepted view, ferrous iron transported out of the cell by ferroportin would be safely oxidized by ceruloplasmin to facilitate loading on transferrin. Therefore, the ceruloplasmin-ferroportin system represents the main pathway for cellular iron egress and it is responsible for physiological regulation of cellular iron levels. The most recent findings regarding the structural and functional features of ceruloplasmin and ferroportin and their relationship will be described in this review.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.