BRS-3 activation transforms the effect of human bronchial epithelial cells from PGE2 mediated inhibition to TGF-beta 1 dependent promotion on proliferation and collagen synthesis of lung fibroblasts
ABSTRACT Airway re-modelling in asthma usually results in an irreversible weakness of pulmonary ventilation, however, its initiating or controlling mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that signal communication between airway epithelial cells and sub-mucosal fibroblast cells may play an important role in the maintenance of structure homeostasis in a physiologic condition and in initiation of airway remodelling in a stressed condition. To test the hypothesis, a co-cultured system of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) and human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were designed to observe the effects of BEC, in the normal state or in a BRS-3 activated state, on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HLF. The results showed that the proliferation activities of both BEC and HLF inhibited each other under the normal state. BRS-3-activated BEC can transform the reciprocal inhibition into promoting effects. The secretion of TGF-beta1 increased and the synthesis of PGE2 decreased from BRS-3-activated BEC, which were correlated with the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HLF. The proliferation activities of HLF were weakened by co-culture with TGF-beta1 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) treated BEC. It was concluded that, in the normal state, BEC inhibits the activities of fibroblasts through release of PGE2 to maintain the airway homeostasis; however when stressed, for example by BRS-3 activation, BEC promote the activities of fibroblasts mediated by TGF-beta1, thereby facilitating the airway re-modelling.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This review will highlight recent advances in the understanding of molecular mechanisms by which mammalian bombesin receptors are regulated and which intracellular signaling pathways have been characterized to mediate agonist-dependent receptor biological effects. Mammalian bombesin receptors have been demonstrated to be involved in a larger array of physiological and pathophysiological conditions than previously reported. Pharmacological experiments in vitro and in vivo as well as utilization of animals genetically deficient of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor demonstrated roles in memory and fear behavior, lung development and injury, small intestinal cell repair, autocrine tumor growth, and mediating signals for pruritus and penile reflexes. Intracellular signaling studies predominantly of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor owing to its frequent overexpression in some human malignancies showed that PI3 kinase activation is an important mechanism of cell proliferation. Tumor cell treatment including gastrin-releasing peptide receptor antagonists combined with inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor resulted in an additive effect on blocking cell proliferation. Novel molecular mechanisms of the orphan bombesin receptor subtype-3 and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene regulation have been elucidated. Inhibition of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor signaling in human malignancies represents an attractive target for pharmacological treatment. Novel functions of bombesin related peptides have been identified including processes in the central nervous system, lung and intestinal tract.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 03/2009; 16(1):66-71. DOI:10.1097/MED.0b013e32831cf5aa · 3.77 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The orphan receptor, bombesin receptor subtype-3(BRS-3) is a G-protein-coupled receptor classified in the bombesin (Bn) receptor family because of its high homology (47-51%) with other members of this family [gastrin-releasing peptide receptor [GRPR] and neuromedin B receptor [NMBR]]. There is increasing interest in BRS-3, because primarily from receptor knockout studies, it seems important in energy metabolism, glucose control, insulin secretion, motility and tumor growth. Pharmacological tools to study the role of BRS-3 in physiology/pathophysiology are limited because the natural ligand is unknown and BRS-3 has low affinity for all naturally occurring Bn-related peptides. However, a few years ago a synthetic high-affinity agonist [dTyr(6),betaAla(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]Bn-(6-14) was described but was nonselective for BRS-3 over other Bn receptors. Based on this peptide, in various studies a number of putative selective, high-potency hBRS-3 agonists were described, however the results on their selectivity are conflicting in a number of cases. The purpose of the present study was to thoroughly study the pharmacology of four of the most select/potent putative hBRS-3 agonists (#2-4, 16a). Each was studied in multiple well-characterized Bn receptor-transfected cells and native Bn receptor bearing cells, using binding studies, alterations in cellular signaling (PLC, PKD) and changes in cellular function(growth). Two peptides (#2, #3) had nM affinities/potencies for hBRS-3, peptide #4 had low affinity/potency, and peptide #16a very low (>3000 nM). Peptide#3 had the highest selectivity for hBRS-3 (100-fold), whereas #2, 4 had lower selectivity. Peptide #16a's selectivity could not be determined because of its low affinity/potencies for all hBn receptors. These results show that peptide #3 is the preferred hBRS-3 agonist for studies at present, although its selectivity of only 100-fold may limit its utility in some cases. This study underscores the importance of full pharmacological characterization of newly reported selective agonists.Peptides 08/2010; 31(8):1569-78. DOI:10.1016/j.peptides.2010.04.023 · 2.61 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The native ligand for the G protein-coupled bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) has currently not been identified. Studies in mice showed robust BRS-3 expression in the hypothalamic satiety centers, and genetic receptor inactivation resulted in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. BRS-3 was also detected in normal human pancreatic islet cells suggesting a critical role of BRS-3 in regulating energy metabolism and satiety via central and peripheral mechanisms of action. The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a main regulator of pancreatic β-cell gene expression required for glucose homeostasis and islet cell survival, and hypothalamic regulation of satiety. Therefore, in this study we examined whether agonist-dependent hBRS-3 stimulation mediates CREB activation. A selective hBRS-3 peptide agonist and two non-selective hBRS-3 peptide agonists were used to activate ectopically expressed hBRS-3. Stimulation with hBRS-3 peptide agonists resulted in transient calcium mobilization, whereby the selective peptide agonist acted exclusively via hBRS-3 but not through the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). A selective high-affinity GRP-R antagonist did not inhibit hBRS-3-mediated calcium signals. We also found time-dependent CREB phosphorylation in response to the selective hBRS-3 activation, which was abrogated by pretreatment with protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors. Human BRS-3 agonists also stimulated CREB transactivation and resulted in modest increases of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These changes were significantly reduced after pretreatment with inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and MEK-1. Thus, our results suggest that hBRS-3 agonist-dependent signaling mediates CREB phosphorylation and transactivation through partially PKA, PKC, and MEK-1 pathways.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 11/2011; 46(1):88-99. DOI:10.1007/s12031-011-9675-3 · 2.76 Impact Factor