BRS-3 activation transforms the effect of human bronchial epithelial cells from PGE2 mediated inhibition to TGF-beta1 dependent promotion on proliferation and collagen synthesis of lung fibroblasts.
ABSTRACT Airway re-modelling in asthma usually results in an irreversible weakness of pulmonary ventilation, however, its initiating or controlling mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we hypothesize that signal communication between airway epithelial cells and sub-mucosal fibroblast cells may play an important role in the maintenance of structure homeostasis in a physiologic condition and in initiation of airway remodelling in a stressed condition. To test the hypothesis, a co-cultured system of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) and human lung fibroblasts (HLF) were designed to observe the effects of BEC, in the normal state or in a BRS-3 activated state, on the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HLF. The results showed that the proliferation activities of both BEC and HLF inhibited each other under the normal state. BRS-3-activated BEC can transform the reciprocal inhibition into promoting effects. The secretion of TGF-beta1 increased and the synthesis of PGE2 decreased from BRS-3-activated BEC, which were correlated with the proliferation and collagen synthesis of HLF. The proliferation activities of HLF were weakened by co-culture with TGF-beta1 antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) treated BEC. It was concluded that, in the normal state, BEC inhibits the activities of fibroblasts through release of PGE2 to maintain the airway homeostasis; however when stressed, for example by BRS-3 activation, BEC promote the activities of fibroblasts mediated by TGF-beta1, thereby facilitating the airway re-modelling.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Description of the recent findings of the biological roles of bombesin-like peptides and their receptors in lungs. RECENT FINDINGS: Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) was involved in the airway inflammation in murine models of airway hyperreactivity. The circulating proGRP could serve as a valuable tumor marker for small-cell lung cancers, and the plasma level of proGRP is more stable compared with that of serum proGRP. Recent studies also shed light on the intracellular signaling pathways of bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) activation in cultured human lung cancer cells. SUMMARY: The relevant biology of BLPs and their receptors in lung cancers and other lung diseases still remains largely unknown. With the development of several highly specific BRS-3 agonists, recent studies provided some insights into the biological effects of BRS-3 in lungs.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 12/2012; · 3.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The native ligand for the G protein-coupled bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS-3) has currently not been identified. Studies in mice showed robust BRS-3 expression in the hypothalamic satiety centers, and genetic receptor inactivation resulted in obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. BRS-3 was also detected in normal human pancreatic islet cells suggesting a critical role of BRS-3 in regulating energy metabolism and satiety via central and peripheral mechanisms of action. The cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a main regulator of pancreatic β-cell gene expression required for glucose homeostasis and islet cell survival, and hypothalamic regulation of satiety. Therefore, in this study we examined whether agonist-dependent hBRS-3 stimulation mediates CREB activation. A selective hBRS-3 peptide agonist and two non-selective hBRS-3 peptide agonists were used to activate ectopically expressed hBRS-3. Stimulation with hBRS-3 peptide agonists resulted in transient calcium mobilization, whereby the selective peptide agonist acted exclusively via hBRS-3 but not through the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R). A selective high-affinity GRP-R antagonist did not inhibit hBRS-3-mediated calcium signals. We also found time-dependent CREB phosphorylation in response to the selective hBRS-3 activation, which was abrogated by pretreatment with protein kinase A and protein kinase C inhibitors. Human BRS-3 agonists also stimulated CREB transactivation and resulted in modest increases of CRE-dependent gene transcription. These changes were significantly reduced after pretreatment with inhibitors of PKA, PKC, and MEK-1. Thus, our results suggest that hBRS-3 agonist-dependent signaling mediates CREB phosphorylation and transactivation through partially PKA, PKC, and MEK-1 pathways.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 11/2011; 46(1):88-99. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The orphan receptor, bombesin receptor subtype-3(BRS-3) is a G-protein-coupled receptor classified in the bombesin (Bn) receptor family because of its high homology (47-51%) with other members of this family [gastrin-releasing peptide receptor [GRPR] and neuromedin B receptor [NMBR]]. There is increasing interest in BRS-3, because primarily from receptor knockout studies, it seems important in energy metabolism, glucose control, insulin secretion, motility and tumor growth. Pharmacological tools to study the role of BRS-3 in physiology/pathophysiology are limited because the natural ligand is unknown and BRS-3 has low affinity for all naturally occurring Bn-related peptides. However, a few years ago a synthetic high-affinity agonist [dTyr(6),betaAla(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]Bn-(6-14) was described but was nonselective for BRS-3 over other Bn receptors. Based on this peptide, in various studies a number of putative selective, high-potency hBRS-3 agonists were described, however the results on their selectivity are conflicting in a number of cases. The purpose of the present study was to thoroughly study the pharmacology of four of the most select/potent putative hBRS-3 agonists (#2-4, 16a). Each was studied in multiple well-characterized Bn receptor-transfected cells and native Bn receptor bearing cells, using binding studies, alterations in cellular signaling (PLC, PKD) and changes in cellular function(growth). Two peptides (#2, #3) had nM affinities/potencies for hBRS-3, peptide #4 had low affinity/potency, and peptide #16a very low (>3000 nM). Peptide#3 had the highest selectivity for hBRS-3 (100-fold), whereas #2, 4 had lower selectivity. Peptide #16a's selectivity could not be determined because of its low affinity/potencies for all hBn receptors. These results show that peptide #3 is the preferred hBRS-3 agonist for studies at present, although its selectivity of only 100-fold may limit its utility in some cases. This study underscores the importance of full pharmacological characterization of newly reported selective agonists.Peptides 08/2010; 31(8):1569-78. · 2.61 Impact Factor